Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Chief Editor Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal provides an avenue to medical scientists for publication of original research work so as to facilitate use of research for public health action. The scope of the Journal is broad. Original research articles are invited on public health, primary health care, epidemiology, health administration, health systems, health economics, health promotion, public health nutrition, communicable and non-communicable diseases, maternal and child health, occupational and environmental health, social and preventive medicine which have potential to promote evidence-based public health action. The Journal also include editorial, commentaries, perspectives, state of the art reviews, research briefs, policy and practice, reports from the field, public health classics, letters to the editor and book reviews.</p> A Systematic review of factors affecting compliance toward oral iron-folic acid supplementation among pregnant women in India. 2022-10-27T11:15:41+00:00 Areeba Khanam Kashish Vohra Thejas Achary MG Anjusha Ranjith Harshiti Bharti Rupam Ghosh Ravneet Kaur Kapil Yadav <p><strong>Background</strong>: Iron-folic acid deficiency is the most common complication during pregnancy. Iron deficiency is responsible for various health complications among pregnant women. Compliance with IFA supplementation is variable across India several factors are associated with compliance with IFA supplementation. <strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this systematic review is to assess the factors affecting compliance toward oral iron-folic acid supplementation among pregnant women in India. <strong>Methods</strong>: The primary search was carried out using PubMed, Google scholar, the WHO website, and Research Gate which provide access to full?text research articles from January 2012 to 25th January 2022 published data were searched. <strong>Result</strong>: A total of 74 studies were identified, and 20 were included in this review. Out of the 20 studies, sixteen were cross-sectional, two mixed methods, and two randomized control trials. knowledge of IFA, education, socioeconomic status, the timing of registration and number of antenatal visits, type of family, and age of the pregnant women were the factors that affect the compliance of IFA supplementation. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Knowledge of iron-folic acid supplementation, Timing of registration and number of Antenatal Care visits, educational level of the pregnant women, and age of the pregnant women were factors associated with the compliance of IFA supplementation among pregnant women in India.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Areeba khanam, Ms. Kashish Vohra, Thejas Achary MG, Dr. Anjusha Ranjith, Ms. Harshiti Bharti, Ms. Rupam Ghosh, Dr. Ravneet Kaur, Dr. Kapil Yadav The compelling necessity for improvement in cancer screening in India in this decade 2022-07-20T14:26:20+00:00 Yasmin Khan Avani Verma Anila Varghese Sidharth Sekhar Mishra <p>In 2020, cancers of the breast, lip and oral cavity and cervix were the three most common cancers in India.(1) The national programme for prevention and control of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and stroke (NPCDCS) recommends a population-based screening for identifying pre-cancerous lesions and early detection of these three cancers by front line health workers.(2) Data about cancer screening has been included in the latest National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5).(3) We have tried to understand the current status of cervical, breast and oral cancer screening in India.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yasmin Khan, Avani Verma, Anila Varghese, Sidharth Sekhar Mishra Power of Millets- Critical for addressing Ecological, Agrarian, and Emerging health crisis in Punjab 2022-10-05T10:56:38+00:00 Jarnail Singh Thakur Harmanjeet Kaur Chaitanya Devesh Singh Thakur <p>The state of Punjab is facing a major threat of ecological, agrarian as well as emerging health crisis. Continuously depleting water tables due to unregulated use of irrigation water and increased cultivation of water-thirsty, varieties of rice are posing major threat to water availability in the state. Indiscriminate use of chemicals in farming leading to soil infertility, polluted surface waters and air pollution are contributing to ecological catastrophe and eventually leading to many health problems in the population. Hence there is need to focus on environmentally friendly, economically viable and health benefitting solutions. Millets as climate change compliant crops score highly over other grains in terms of marginal growing conditions and high nutritional value are proposed as a solution for emerging challenges in Punjab.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 J S Thakur, Dr. Harmanjeet Kaur, Chaitanya Devesh Singh Thakur Antenatal depression and its correlates - a cross-sectional study in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi 2022-10-27T10:42:08+00:00 Bhawna Gupta Abha Mangal Archana Thakur Joyce Felicia Vaghela Amita Sharma <p><strong>Background</strong>- Antenatal depression is affecting 10% pregnant women worldwide with higher prevalence in developing countries. This causes poor maternal and foetal outcome and also affects cognitive development of the child. <strong>Aim and objective</strong>: To estimate magnitude of antenatal depression and its risk factors. <strong>Methodology</strong>- A cross-sectional survey was done at the antenatal clinic of community health department catering to an urban resettlement colony, East Delhi. Estimated sample size was 216 (including 10% non-response rate). Pregnant women attending the ANC clinic from October 2019 to February 2020 were enrolled. EPDS questionnaire was used to assess depression during pregnancy. <strong>Results</strong>-The antenatal depression was found in 11.8% subjects as per EPDS score. Working female and belonging to Muslim religion, past history of abortion, complications in previous pregnancy, financial debt, physical violence and substance use in family showed significant association with antenatal depression. <strong>Conclusion</strong> –Depression was prevalent among antenatal women and was found to be associated with various risk factors.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dr Bhawna Gupta, Dr Abha Mangal, archana thakur, Dr Joyce F Vaghela, Dr Amita Sharma Validity of point-of-care device for diagnosing anemia in workers exposed to lead 2022-10-28T09:17:10+00:00 Ankit Viramgami Soundarya Soundarajan Ankit Sheth Kuldip Upadhyay <p>Detecting anemia in occupational health settings is critical in a high-risk population for anemia like the lead-exposed. Whether the point-of-care devices are sensitive to detect anemia in individuals with high levels of lead exposure is unknown. We compared hemoglobin (Hb) levels from HemoCue® Hb 301 System and standard analyzer, Mindrey-BC 5300, in individuals (n=58) exposed to lead (mean levels = 44.9 ?g/dL) for a chronic period (mean duration of exposure = 105 months). We observed high sensitivity (0.95), specificity(0.95) in detecting anemia by hemocue, and high agreement between the methods. The significant difference in Hb values between the methods (0.171g/dL, p=0.018) was clinically minimal. We conclude that hemocue is a good method for rapidly detecting anemia and estimating Hb levels among the lead-exposed in resource-limited settings.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Ankit P Viramgami, Dr. Soundarya S, Dr. Ankit M Sheth, Dr. Kuldip D Upadhyay Public Health Management a Curative Tool for the Public Health Related Problems 2022-11-07T05:20:30+00:00 Surya Bali <p>Health always remains a core component in the life of human beings and considered as a major instrument of overall socio-economic development. Concept of health has been defined and understood in different ways by different cultures. The two major division of medicine namely curative and preventive medicine came into light at the close of 19th century. Although origin of Medicine and Public health goes back to ancient Greek mythology, Asclepius was the Greek god of Healing. He was the son of Apollo and the Coronis. Asclepius was married to Epione, with whom he had five daughters: Hygieia, Panacea, Aceso, Iaso, and Aglaea. Hygieia was the goddess of health, cleanliness and hygiene. Follower of panacea practiced curative medicine and were called healer and followers of Hygieia were called as Hygienist or Public Health experts (1). Concept of Public Health came from this hygienist category of healthcare personals.</p> <p>The Constitution of the World Health Organization, which came into force on April 7, 1948, defines health “as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.”(2) In today’s world more emphasis is given on physical health and most of the resources are diverted for the care of physical health especially for the medical treatment. Other domains of health care remain neglected.</p> <p>Public health applies to the holistic approach for the care of health. Physical health is best taken care by the judicious mix of public health and medical domain of health. The evolution of concepts of public health tries to address new challenges of population health like non communicable diseases, cancers, accidents, injuries, inequities, increasing cost of care, poor quality of care, and poor patient satisfaction etc. </p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Surya Bali Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients with Advanced Renal Failure: A Tertiary Care Centre Study from North Indian Population 2022-12-13T06:13:51+00:00 Sumit Rungta Shweta Kumar Sukanya Tripathy Sant Pandey Kamlendra Verma Ghulam Akhtar Suchit Swaroop Amar Deep <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>Viral hepatitis (Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) &amp; Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)) related liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the patients with advanced renal failure who are treated with dialysis, and this is due to high number of blood transfusion sessions and/or cross contamination from the dialysis circuits. <strong>Aims &amp; Objectives:</strong> This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections in patients with advanced renal failure (ARF). <strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was done in joint collaboration of Department of Nephrology and Department of Gastroenterology, KGMU, Lucknow, from June 2018 to June 2020 among, CRF patients. Clinical data such as age, gender, duration of dialysis; number of transfusions, Serum sample was collected from each patient. Serological markers for HBV and HCV were determined with ELISA by using commercial diagnostic kits. HCV-RNA and HBV-DNA were determined quantitatively by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. <strong>Results:</strong> A total 934 patients with advanced renal failure attended the nephrology OPD. Out of 934 patients, 65 (6.96%) patients screened positive for HBV/HCV infection. The results of this study also showed that the prevalence of viral hepatitis infection in the haemodialysis (HD) and without HD patients is 8.25% and 6.3% respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It has been found that viral infections, particularly HBV and HCV infections are common in advanced renal failure patients who are on HD.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sumit Rungta, Shweta Kumar, Sukanya Tripathy, Sant Pandey, Kamlendra Verma, Ghulam Akhtar, Suchit Swaroop, Amar Deep Are Health Caregivers safe from workplace violence? A cross sectional study on workplace safety from Tertiary Care Hospital of Uttarakhand 2022-10-29T07:11:53+00:00 Shaili Vyas Ravinder Singh Saini Jayanti Semwal Neha Sharma Manish Chaturvedi Mohd. Waseem Faraz Ansari <p><strong>Background</strong>: The prevalence of workplace violence in the healthcare sector is a problem that is frequently ignored and underreported. The performance of healthcare workers who have been the target of violence may suffer, which may have a negative effect on patient satisfaction and health. <strong>Aims &amp; Objectives</strong>: The purpose of the current study was to determine the prevalence of workplace violence (WPV), risk factors for violence against healthcare workers, and their experiences regarding the same. <strong>Methodology</strong>: It was a cross-sectional study conducted on 157 hospital staff at Tertiary Care Medical College of Uttarakhand. Data was gathered using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire that was modified from the ILO, ICN, WHO, and PSI. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 20). <strong>Results</strong>: Factors like age, gender, job profile, lesser work experience, night shifts, and fewer staff on duty were found to have a positive association with workplace violence. It was observed that the majority of incidents took place in the ward, and the patient’s relatives were the attacker in most of the cases. It was also seen that the majority of Hospital staff did not get bothered by the incident except by staying super alert while dealing with other patients or their relatives. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study concludes that while caring for patients, Hospital staff are at risk of being victims of aggressive and violent situations. To reduce this problem, strategies like training staff in order to handle such incidents in the future should be brought into practice. Laws should be made stricter &amp; assaulting staff on duty should be made a cognizable offense with serious consequences &amp; heavy penalties. Also, the young budding MBBS students should be trained by incorporating these strategies, laws &amp; policies in the CBME curriculum</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shaili Vyas, Dr (Brig) R S saini, Dr Jayanti Semwal, Dr Neha Sharma, Dr Manish Chaturvedi, Dr Mohd.Waseem F Ansari Effect of digitization of medical case files on doctor patient relationship in an Out Patient Department setting of Northern India: A comparative study 2022-10-27T10:36:09+00:00 Aravind Gandhi P Kapil Goel Madhu Gupta Amarjeet Singh <p><strong>Background</strong>: Digitization of health records and health delivery processes in health care settings may have an impact on the Patient-Physician communication, wait times, that affect the overall patient satisfaction with the health care services. <strong>Aim &amp; Objective</strong>: We ascertained the effect of digitization of medical case files on the doctor patient relationship (DPR) domain of patient satisfaction at an urban primary health center in India. <strong>Settings and Design</strong>: Comparative, cross-sectional study in primary health centres. <strong>Methods and Material</strong>: The patient satisfaction was compared between the patients attending the Public Health Dispensary (PHD) that uses digitized medical case file system and a Civil Dispensary (CD) which follows the conventional paper based medical records, using a Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). <strong>Statistical analysis used</strong>: Univariate analysis was done by chi-square test and adjusted analysis was done by multiple linear regression. <strong>Results</strong>: Patient satisfaction in DPR was found to be same between the digitized medical case files based and conventional OPD (p=0.453). Significantly higher overall patient satisfaction was reported in the conventional paper based OPD than the digitized OPD (p&lt;0.001). <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Patient satisfaction towards the doctor-patient relationship (DPR) was same between paper based OPD and the digitized medical case files based OPD.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aravind Gandhi P, Kapil Goel, Madhu Gupta, Amarjeet Singh Assessment of effectiveness of Cinemeducation as a tool to impart communication skills among the MBBS 1st Professional students 2022-10-27T10:58:11+00:00 Janki Bartwal Mukesh Shukla <p><strong>Background</strong>: Improvements in healthcare providers’ communication skills have been linked to more effective healthcare delivery, improved patient compliance, better patient and provider satisfaction, and fewer lawsuits. Cinemeducation is a relatively new method of medical education where movies or movie clips are used to stimulate discussions and reflections, which is a part of an active learning process. Hence, the present study was undertaken. <strong>Methods</strong>: We conducted an educational research, mixed method study among the MBBS 1st Professional students. A pre &amp; post test to assess the knowledge and attitude of the students about the importance of communication skills in doctor-patient relationship. Students wrote the reflection and feedback after watching the movie clip. Quantitative analysis was done using paired t test by SPSS v. 20. Qualitative data analysis was done by two investigators independently. <strong>Results</strong>: The pre &amp; post test for knowledge was statistically significant while communication skill attitude scale score for both positive &amp; negative was not significant. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The student’s knowledge improved significantly after the sessions on communication skills, while negligible change in attitude was observed. Reflective writing by the students shows that cinemeducation can be used as one of the tool for teaching communication skills to the medical students.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Janki Bartwal, Mukesh Shukla Assessment of Selfie addiction among undergraduate medical Students 2022-10-27T08:54:17+00:00 Som Nath Rajesh Kumar Manjusha Nath <p><strong>Background: </strong>Selfie’ means “A photograph that one has taken of oneself or a self portrait photograph typically taken with a smart phone or digital camera and shared via social media”. Considering the dependency on Internet and selfie taking behavior among professional students, the study was undertaken. <strong>Aims and Objective-</strong> to determine the demographic profile of selfie users and different variables related to selfie taking and posting and its association with risky dangerous selfie. <strong>Material and Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study conducted among 220 undergraduate medical students were using smartphone. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 21. <strong>Results: </strong>Male students of middle class family of urban areas were more involved in taking selfie. Females were comparatively spending more time (2-3 hrs) on Internet (X<sup>2</sup> =19.494 and p = .001).Total 14% students were taking 3-5 selfie and posted on social media(Statistically significant,X<sup>2</sup> =7.882,p =0.019). 19(8.63%) participants admitted of taking dangerous selfie of which male 13(14.0%) more than female 06(8.4%). <strong>Conclusion: A</strong>ge and gender affects the number of selfies one clicks. This is developing a new mental disorder ‘selfitis’ as well as desire to take dangerous selfie. There is need of health awareness programme, IEC regarding importance of healthy life style.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Som Nath, Manjusha Nath, RAJESH KUMAR Self-medication and its associated factors in Amdanga block of West Bengal 2022-10-27T08:50:07+00:00 Suchetana Bhattacharyya Sayeli Mitra Swagatendra Narayan Basu Inba Raja Alagesan Rivu Basu <p><strong>Background</strong>: The WHO defines the use of medications without prior medical consultation regarding indication, dosage and duration of treatment as self-medication. The practice is a global problem. <strong>Aims and Objectives</strong>: The study was conducted to describe the care seeking behavior of rural self-medicators living in Amdanga Block of West Bengal and to assess the belief in medicines by the self-medicators. <strong>Material &amp;</strong> <strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing with a pretested semi-structured questionnaire on 665 self-medicators out of 1740 adults who were interviewed in 80 villages of Amdanga Block, West Bengal. A three-stage sampling method was used to reach the study population. A three month recall on self-medication practice was considered operationalizing the “pull” and “push” factors of self-medicators using a Pshycho-social framework. The variables were Socio-demographic factors, Care Seeking Behaviors, Health System related factors, Belief in Medicines according to the framework. <strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of self-medication was found to be 38.2%. 63% of the study subjects were female and 56.3% had a literacy status of middle school and above. 54.4% relied on their old prescription for self-medication. 68.7% had an initial choice to consult a doctor but later self-medicated of whom 53.2% changed their choice due to monetary and transport issues while 38.5% thought of self-medication considering their disease was mild in nature. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Awareness and health education can link rural subjects with primary care facility and right decisions on care can be provided.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Suchetana Bhattacharyya, sayeli mitra, Swagatendra Narayan Basu, Inba Raja Alegasan, Rivu Basu Predictors of Practice of breast self-examination among women in District Ambala (Haryana) 2022-08-08T05:39:59+00:00 Shilpi Gupta Anu Bhardwaj Anuradha Nadda Anshu Mittal Khajan Singh <p><strong>Background: </strong>Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and its early detection is critical to improve survival. Breast self-examination is a cheap, basic and non-intellectual method to detect breast cancer. <strong>Aims and objectives</strong>: 1To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding breast self-examination2. To explain the various factors which affect the practice of BSE <strong>Material and Methods: </strong>The present study was carried out among 300 women residing in rural and urban areas of district Ambala using a self-designed pretested semi-structured questionnaire. <strong>Results: </strong>In this study 127 (42.3%) of the participants had heard of BSE and 107 (35.7%) of the participants knew how to perform BSE. Overall, 47.7%, 30.3%, and 22% of the study participants had poor (&lt;50%), medium (50–75%), and good knowledge (&gt;75) on BSE, respectively. Educational qualification, knowing the three positions to perform BSE, knowing how often should BSE be done, taught how to do BSE, BSE is a useful tool to detect breast cancer were seen to be significantly associated with practice of BSE. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study elucidates that the knowledge as well as practice of BSE was significantly low in the population. This study provides insights into the various factors which affect the practice of BSE .</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shilpi Gupta, Anu Bhardwaj, Anuradha Nadda, Anshu Mittal, Khajan Singh Effect of Prenatal Dietary Pattern on Maternal Anemia and Low Birth Weight in Rural Areas of Kanpur 2022-08-03T11:19:54+00:00 Ahmad Arif Siddiqui Seema Nigam Saif Anees Tanu Midha <p><strong>Background</strong>: In India, the dietary pattern of women from low socioeconomic status are almost same during pre-pregnant, pregnant and lactating periods. Additional foods are required to improve weight gain in pregnancy and birth weight of infants. <strong>Aim &amp; Objective</strong>: To identify the impact of prenatal dietary pattern on maternal anemia and low birth weight in rural areas of Kanpur Nagar. <strong>Methods</strong>: This study was a cross sectional study conducted amongst mothers who recently delivered (RDW) in rural blocks of District Kanpur Nagar. Data was collected by interviewing study subjects using a semi-structured interview schedule after applying multistage random sampling technique. <strong>Results</strong>: Out of 102 women studied, 39.2% women had consumed &gt;90 IFA tablets, 49.1% of mothers had practiced MMF and 47.1% of women practiced MDD during their prenatal period and 40.1% babies of current pregnancy were born as LBW. IFA consumption during pregnancy was significantly associated with maternal anemia. MMF during pregnancy was significantly associated with LBW. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: In our study it was found that IFA consumption, MMF and MDD during antenatal is a key preventive measure to reduce anemia status in pregnant females and birth weight of baby during prenatal period.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arif Siddiqui, Seema Nigam, Saif Anees, Tanu Midha A study of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding biomedical waste management among health care providers in a tertiary care Institute in Punjab 2022-08-23T05:45:10+00:00 Harjot Singh Manisha Nagpal Paramjot Bindra Harinder Singh Ankush Garg <p>The biomedical waste, if not properly managed, can harm the surrounding environment, cause various infections and injuries to the healthcare workers, patients, their attendants. <strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices among different cadres of health care providers in a tertiary care institute. Expecting that 50% of the study population had precise knowledge about the rules and legislation of biomedical waste management, with an allowable error of 10%, at 95% confidence interval, and accounting for the finite population correction for 1700 participants, a minimum sample size of 426 was taken. Data analysis was done by using Microsoft excel and SPSS. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 426 subjects, 138 (32.4%) were nurses, 35 (8.2%) were lab technicians and 253 (59.4%) were housekeeping staff. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding biomedical waste management and handling were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher among the nurses as compared to other health care providers. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the collection, segregation, rules, and disposal of biomedical waste management was more among nursing staff compared to other health care workers. Hence, emphasis on adequate training is required among other health care workers for the safe handling and disposal of biomedical waste management.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Harjot Singh, Manisha Nagpal, Paramjot Bindra, Harinder Singh, Ankush Garg COVID-19 Vaccination status among Health care workers diagnosed with COVID-19 in a tertiary care institute of Uttarakhand: A Cross-sectional Study 2022-08-08T05:38:49+00:00 Mahendra Singh Rohit Katre Pradeep Aggarwal Yogesh Bahurupi Gaurika Saxena Pallavi Singh Vartika Saxena <p><strong>Background</strong>: Vaccines are considered as the one of the main pillars in halting and ending the presently on-going coronavirus disease (COVID-19 disease) pandemic which has spread globally since it was first detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019. In the absence of specific therapy, infection prevention practices and mass vaccination remains the mainstay in controlling the disease. <strong>Objectives</strong>: Objective of the study was to assess COVID-19 vaccination status, socio-demographic and clinical profile among healthcare workers diagnosed with COVID-19. <strong>Methodology</strong>: A cross-sectional survey from 1st March 2021 to 30th June 2021 among healthcare workers who were diagnosed with COVID-19 in a tertiary care institute of Uttarakhand, India was conducted, and universal sampling was used. Institutional Ethics Committee approved this study. <strong>Results</strong>: Total 662 healthcare workers were diagnosed with COVID-19. 429 (64.8%) of these COVID-19 diagnosed healthcare workers had received either single (129,30%) or both dose (300,70%) of COVID-19 vaccine while remaining 233 (35.2%) belonged to non-vaccinated group. History of exposure to COVID-19 positive patients was higher in vaccinated (66.4%) than in non-vaccinated group (55%) (p = 0.004). Hospitalisation was found to be higher among non-vaccinated (5.6%) than vaccinated group (2.3%) (p = 0.029). <strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study concludes that being vaccinated against COVID-19 disease provides protection against severe infection and reduces the need for hospitalization.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health Household symptomatic contact screening of sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients at the DOTS clinic of SGT hospital, Gurugram 2022-08-09T04:19:57+00:00 Siddharth Naresh Monika Sharma Varinder singh Bhupinder Kaur Anand Pankaj Verma Manvinder Pal Singh Marwaha <p><strong>Background</strong>: Contact screening was conducted under ICMR (REFERENCE ID: 2019-07811) programme in villages near SGT hospital, Gurugram. <strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate risk factors, extent of spread of tuberculosis among household contacts of tuberculosis cases and to create awareness. <strong>Methods and Material</strong>: Address of TB cases were taken from RNTCP register at DOTS clinic, SGT medical college. Then all household contacts of positive cases were screened, counselled and advised to approach ASHA Workers if such symptoms appear. Data was analysed using appropriate statistical methods. <strong>Results</strong>:21 Index cases along with 94 household contacts were screened. 61.90% families still use chullahs for cooking<strong>.</strong> 76.1% families have overcrowding. 3) 61.90% families had inadequate ventilation 4) 19.05%families were aware about the spread of this disease. 5)Only 23.80% families practised adequate sanitation methods and precautions6) 42.8% Index cases had a history of smoking. 7) 44.4% 4 continue to smoke with infection. The association of adequate sanitation with presence of awareness was found to be statistically significant. (p-value&lt;0.05). Other factors were not significantly associated with level of awareness regarding prevention of tuberculosis spread among study participants. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Contact screening is an effective tool and it gives the real-time picture of TB in India.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Siddharth Naresh, Monika Sharma, Varinder singh; Bhupinder Kaur Anand, Pankaj Verma , Manvinder Pal Singh Marwaha Study on low birth weight and its associated factors among newborns delivered in a tertiary care hospital of Banda district, Uttar Pradesh 2022-10-10T07:11:16+00:00 Mohd Maroof Lal Divakar Singh Seema Barman Navin Kumar Santosh Kumar Barman Mukesh Yadav <p><strong>Background: </strong>Low birth weight is associated with higher morbidity and mortality including impaired growth and development, malnutrition etc. Worldwide, one- fifth of newborns delivered are low birth weight. <strong>Aims &amp; objectives: </strong>To estimate frequency of low birth weight &amp; its associated factors among newborns delivered in a tertiary care hospital. <strong>Materials &amp; Methods: </strong>A cross sectional analysis of 290 newborns delivered in tertiary care hospital, Banda, Uttar Pradesh during period of 15th February 2021 to 31st December 2021 was done for estimating low birth weight frequency &amp; its associated factors including child characteristics, mother characteristics &amp; father characteristics using data from medical record section of hospital. Frequency, percentages, mean, standard deviation, chi square test &amp; independent t- test was used. P value &lt;0.05 was considered significant. <strong>Results:</strong> 91 out of 290 newborns delivered were low birth weight (27.9%, 95% CI- 23.1%- 33.4%). The following factors were shown to have a significant association with low birth weight: education of mother (p=0.04), education of father (p=0.03), occupation of father (p=0.02), and duration of pregnancy (p&lt;0.001). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study demonstrated that education of mother, education of father, occupation of father, and duration of pregnancy had significant association with low birth weight frequency that suggests that improving literacy status can help in decreasing burden of low birth weight apart from other factors.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mohd Maroof, Lal Divakar Singh, Seema Barman, Navin Kumar, Santosh Kumar Barman, Mukesh Yadav A comparative study on treatment seeking behaviour of geriatric population in rural and urban areas of district Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 2022-08-31T10:50:55+00:00 Shiv Ratan Seema Nigam Tanu Midha Sachin Chaudhary <p><strong>Background</strong>: Aging is a complex and universal life process. Treatment seeking behaviour in elderly is affected by socio-economic factors and by affordability, availability and accessibility of healthcare. <strong>Objectives</strong>: To study treatment-seeking behaviour of the study subjects. To compare treatment seeking behaviour among rural and urban study subjects. <strong>Methods</strong>: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kanpur district. Selection of villages in rural and mohallas in urban areas was done using a multistage random sampling technique. A total of 600 subjects were studied, including 400 from urban areas and 200 from rural areas. Elderly persons&gt;60 years of age, both males and females were included in the study. <strong>Results</strong>: Overall, out of 600 study subjects, 59.8% were taking treatment in rural areas and in urban areas 77.6% were taking treatment. In urban areas, more females availed treatment compared to rural areas. Majority of study subjects (56.5%) sought treatment from a government hospital. Only 36% subjects had health insurance. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: In Urban areas more subjects availed treatment as compared to rural areas. Majority of subjects sought treatment from government health facilities. Lack of financial support and long waiting time were major reasons for not availing health care.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shiv Ratan, Seema Nigam, Tanu Midha, Sachin Chaudhary Drug adherence to anti-tubercular treatment during COVID-19 lockdown in Haldwani block of Nainital district 2022-09-07T10:00:49+00:00 Mohd Maroof Gaihemlung Pamei Maneesh Bhatt Sadhana Awasthi Subhash Chandra Bahuguna Pankaj Singh <p><strong>Background</strong>: India saw one of the stringent lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the wake of this period, the normal functioning of medical services was affected. People were reluctant to seek medical attention and notification of Tuberculosis dipped. The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of non-adherence to anti-tubercular treatment and to identify the factors affecting the non-adherence to treatment. <strong>Methods</strong>: A retrospective community-based study was conducted among 284 tuberculosis patients. They were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire consisting of WHO dimensions of non-adherence and lockdown related questions. <strong>Results</strong>: The proportion of non-adherence to treatment was found to be 5.3%. Factors like chronic diseases, depression, without knowledge on how the disease is transmitted and that medication can be discontinued once the symptoms subsided, alcohol consumption, and trouble accessing medicine were found to be the determining factors in non-adherence to the treatment. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment in our study was low but the various dimensions of adherence along with lockdown related factors had significant impact on it. To further minimize non-adherence during emergency like the lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic, corrective measures must be explored and implemented.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mohd. Maroof, Gaihemlung Pamei, Maneesh Bhatt, Sadhana Awasthi, Chandra Quantifying the mobile phone usage and gauging the perception about its harmful effects among the Otorhinolaryngologists in India- A questionnaire-based pan India survey 2022-12-14T04:48:48+00:00 Prem Anand Saurabh Varshney Sumit Angral KSBS Krishna Sasanka Pratima Gupta Sudip Bhattacharya <p>Introduction-There is a definitive risk to human health because of mobile phones. The awareness towards mobile phones emitted electromagnetic radiation is of paramount importance to prevent health risks and possible negative health disorders. Aim and objectives-The aim of the survey is to assess the awareness of mobile phone radiation and its harmful effects on the body and the mobile phone usage trend among Otorhinolaryngologists from India. Methodology-The present survey aimed to obtain baseline data on cell phone usage and radiation awareness among a relatively homogenous cohort of Otorhinolaryngologists from India. This is a cross-sectional online survey assessing awareness of Mobile Phone radiation through a custom-made questionnaire devised by the authors which consisted of four parts: 1. Demographic details, 2. Mobile phone usage trend, 3. Knowledge of mobile phone radiation 4. Awareness of health hazards produced by mobile phone radiation. Results- The total number (n) of otorhinolaryngologists to whom the questionnaire was sent was 6336 of which 259 of them responded which formed the sample size of our study. Thus, the response rate of the survey was 4%. A total of 259 Otorhinolaryngologists participated in the study. The mean age of the population involved in the survey is 41.7810.32 years. The male-female ratio of the survey is 161:98 respectively. There were 172 private and 87 government ENT practitioners in the survey. MS otorhinolaryngology was the most common qualification of the study with 223 doctors having the degree, 20 having DNB, and 7 of them having completed DLO. The mean years of medical practice after postgraduation of the Otorhinolaryngologists participating in the questionnaire are 13.537.38 years. The major contributors to the survey were private ENT consultants with a count of 110, followed by Senior Residents 58, Assistant Professor 39, Professor 29, Associate professor 10, and Additional professor 13. It was evident from the questionnaire that 242 of the respondents were right-handed and 204 of the study population used their right ear for talking over the phone, it was also cross-checked by giving a miss call to them in close vicinity. The mean years of exposure to mobile phone usage by Otorhinolaryngologists are 15.01 5.75. A maximum of 153 surgeons were using mobile phones for 11-20 yrs. The average hours of daily mobile phone usage were 373 minutes. A highest of 101 Otorhinolaryngologists using mobile phones for &gt;4 Hrs. Surprisingly through the questionnaire we came to know that a total of 60 doctors among the 250 use the phone daily for an average of more than 10 Hrs, which is 24% of the study population surveyed. Questions 15-24 were purposed to bring the awareness knowledge of the respondents towards electromagnetic radiation of the cellular phones and it can be arbitrarily said that a score of 5 or more means that the person is aware. The average of the correct responses to each of the 10 questions given by the ENT practitioners is 5.97±1.66. Similarly, questions 25 to 35 assess the awareness of health hazards produced by mobile phone radiation. The mean correct response of the Otorhinolaryngologists is 6.30±1.87.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Prem U Anand, Saurabh Varshney, Sumit Angral, KBSK Sasank, Pratima Gupta, Sudip Bhattacharya Impact of an Alcohol-based hand sanitizer usage during COVID-19 pandemic on disulfiram treatment: A South Indian psychiatrist's practice experiences 2022-12-14T04:51:30+00:00 Naveen Kumar Dhagudu Madithati Pallavi B Gouthami Bayapa Reddy Narapureddy Mayurnath Reddy Sathish Attili Khursheed Muzammil Nazim Nasir Lingala Kalyan Viswanth Reddy <p><strong>Background</strong>: Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) usage has become one of the COVID-19 pandemic-related adapted responses. Some disulfiram-ethanol reactions are reported in people who use alcohol-based hand rub/sanitizer and take Disulfiram as a treatment for their alcohol use disorders. <strong>Aim &amp; Objective</strong>: To determine the practice experiences of psychiatrists on disulfiram prescription to alcohol use disorder victims. <strong>Methodology: </strong>A cross-sectional study on the psychiatrists to find the experiences of disulfiram prescription to their clients with alcohol use disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. <strong>Results</strong>: Nearly 84 (51%) were reverted with a completed questionnaire. Among the respondents, 28 (33.3%) of the respondents decreased to prescribe Disulfiram, 48 (57.1%) reported that their patients stopped using ABHS due to fear of Disulfiram-Ethanol Reaction (DER), and 20 (23.8%) responders notified that their patients were expressed their worry on DER with Disulfiram and ABHS. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Disulfiram prescribed for alcohol use disorders; treatment got peculiar experiences with the incidences of DER reported with Alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Many practitioners were scared to prescribe disulfiram due to DER with ABHS. The prevailing evidence that there is no possibility of cutaneous application of ABHS producing enough significant DER. Hence using ABHS is not a contraindication for disulfiram prescription.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Naveen Kumar Dhagudu, Pallavi Madithati, Gouthami B, Bayapa Reddy Narapureddy, Mayurnath Reddy Jelly, Sathish Attili, Khursheed Muzammil, Nazim Nasir, Kalyan viswanath Reddy Lingala Descriptive analysis of sleep quality and its determinants among rural population of coastal Karnataka 2022-10-27T10:39:48+00:00 Saranya Sivanesan Chythra Raghavendra Rao Sneha Deepak Mallya Uttam Kumar Asha Kamath <p><strong>Background</strong>: A good quality of sleep helps to maintain mood, memory and cognitive performance. <strong>Aim &amp; Objective</strong>: To assess quality of sleep and its determinants among rural adults. <strong>Settings and Design</strong>: A community based cross sectional study was carried out in rural field practice area of a medical college <strong>Methods and Material</strong>: Pittsburg sleep quality index scale was used to assess quality of sleep. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from participants. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. <strong>Statistical analysis used</strong>: Chi-square test was used to find out association between poor sleep and specific morbidities. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was done to assess predictors of poor sleep. <strong>Results</strong>: Among the 614 study subjects, 60.3% had good sleep. Presence of morbidity was significantly associated with poor sleep [AOR=1.48; 95%CI=1.05-2.08]. Presence of a dark room, taking a bath or having milk before bed time were top reasons cited to be facilitating good sleep. Presence of mosquitoes, having young children or adolescent at home and vital events in last one year were reported to hinder good sleep. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: A sizeable proportion of rural adults have poor sleep. Presence of morbidity was a significant predictor of poor sleep.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Saranya Sivanesan, Chythra R Rao, SNEHA DEEPAK MALLYA, Uttam Kumar, Asha Kamath A study on Instinctive Feelings, Perceived Stressors and Factors that helped in reducing Stress during COVID 19 pandemic among Health Care Workers 2022-10-27T10:30:50+00:00 Ashishkumar Chaudhari Nitin Solanki Parul Sharma Punit Patel <p><strong>Background</strong>: Healthcare workers at the forefront of the battle against COVID 19 are not only putting their own health and lives at risk but are also fighting to keep their own worries and emotional stress at bay. <strong>Aim &amp; Objective</strong>: To evaluate emotions, perceived stressors, and factors that helped in reducing stress of healthcare workers who worked during a COVID19 pandemic. <strong>Settings and Design</strong>: This cross sectional study was conducted among Health Care staff involved in COVID 19 duty in tertiary care hospital of Gujarat. <strong>Methods and Material</strong>: Google form link was shared though what’s up and mail. The questionnaire was completed online. Consent for voluntarily participation was also obtained through online Google form. <strong>Statistical analysis used</strong>: Data was entered and analysed through Microsoft Excel 2010. <strong>Results</strong>: Total 106 participants responded to the questionnaire. It was extremely stressful for health care workers to see their colleagues getting infection, as well as the fear that they could transmit the disease to their families or friends. Main factors that helped to reduce the stress were positive attitude from colleagues, improvement of patients conditions and availability of protective equipment. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Personal safety, the protection of family members and unpredictability of pandemic were the main concerns. Hospitals should prioritise stress monitoring for health care workers and provide targeted psychological guidance for HCWs during the pandemic.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Punit Patel, Ashishkumar Chaudhari, Nitin Solanki, Parul Sharma