Indian Journal of Community Health <p>The Journal provides an avenue to medical scientists for publication of original research work so as to facilitate use of research for public health action. The scope of the Journal is broad. Original research articles are invited on public health, primary health care, epidemiology, health administration, health systems, health economics, health promotion, public health nutrition, communicable and non-communicable diseases, maternal and child health, occupational and environmental health, social and preventive medicine which have potential to promote evidence-based public health action. The Journal also include editorial, commentaries, perspectives, state of the art reviews, research briefs, policy and practice, reports from the field, public health classics, letters to the editor and book reviews.</p> Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine en-US Indian Journal of Community Health 0971-7587 Folate supplementation as a strategy to reduce Neural Tube Defects <p>Folic acid is a vitamin known to prevent neural tube defects, megaloblastic anaemia, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, etc. The main natural sources of folate are plant and vegetables e.g. green leafy vegetables, broccoli, asparagus, citrus fruits (orange, strawberry), beans, nuts, cauliflowers, beets, corn etc. and meat products like liver. The primary function of folate is its contribution in the synthesis and repair of the DNA. The bioavailability of food folate is approximately 50%. The bioavailability of folic acid taken with meal compared to with water on empty stomach is 85% and 100% respectively.(1) Hence, it is easier to achieve the recommended daily allowances with fortified food as compared to natural food due to higher stability and bioavailability of synthetic folate when compared to natural food.(2)</p> Shreya Jha Shashi Kant Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 147 149 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.002 Neglected Non-Communicable Diseases-Looking beyond the BIG FOUR <p>In the era of Sustainable Development Goal, we have gone to the next level for achieving SDGs by monitoring and evaluation of SDG indexes,(1) still we conceptualize that public health will face newer challenges in healthcare (SDG-3) in the form of Neglected Non-Communicable Diseases (NNCD) in the near future.(2) Poor nations are already facing the heat of double burden of communicable and non-communicable illnesses (NCDs), often known as chronic illnesses, which are characterized by a protracted course and are multifactorial in causation.(3)</p> <p>Cardiovascular disorders, Cancers, Chronic Respiratory Diseases, and Diabetes are considered as the most common NCDs entitled as BIG FOUR. NCDs disproportionately impact persons in poor countries, where almost three-quarters (31.4 million) of all NCD-related fatalities occur. (2,4–6) The "BIG FOUR" NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, chronic respiratory illnesses, and diabetes) are well-recognized as the leading causes of global health loss, in terms of morbidity and mortality. However, 55 percent of the worldwide burden of NCDs is caused by other NCDs, which are often overlooked in terms of increased premature mortality, increased Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) and reduced Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY). The share of disease burden caused by “Cancer, COPD, Cardiovascular disease, and Diabetes-the BIG FOUR” is the greatest among all NCDs. However, many additional non-communicable diseases cause a comparable fraction of disease burden but receive less attention than the "BIG FOUR."(2,6)</p> Sudip Bhattacharya Om Prakash Bera Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 317 318 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.031 A disappointing Budget -2022 so far as Health Insurance Protection is concerned especially during the critical period of covid influence <p>The expectations were soaring amongst the general public just before the 2022 budget with hopes in respect of reduced Income Tax rates or increased exemption limits etc. One of the biggest expectations was in respect of upward revision in Section 80 D limits which refers to health insurance premium paid and the same has not been revised for long time. Over the years, the health insurance premium has increased substantially and more so due to huge claims from Covid in last two years. But, much to shock of all Income Tax Payers, the, Section 80 D limits remains untouched. There are also other policies which comes under the broad category of Health Insurance that does not qualify for Income Tax exemption but merits serious consideration. Health Insurance policies are subject to GST of 18% which is certainly too high especially when the Government should have looked at initiating major step to boost the health insurance penetration and make feel people more secured. For an individual to manage one’s health risk properly, he/she need to have more than one type of health insurance policies for adequate amount with all applicable riders or add-on covers which matters and all dependents like spouse, children and parents being completely covered.</p> NS Prakash Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 319 321 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.032 Diffusion of coronavirus and awareness among the people of western India: Analyses the role of print media <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Media is considered the most powerful platform to create awareness in human society. It plays an important role in spreading public awareness and disseminating information about pandemic diseases such as coronavirus. A survey through a questionnaire was used and the descriptive analysis of questions as asked to the people on COVID 19 published by the leading newspapers of Rajasthan, western India was done to analyze the role print media played in spreading awareness about Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). <strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The objectives used both quantitative and qualitative methodology. In the quantitative method, a self-structured questionnaire was circulated among the various professionals. A descriptive method of secondary sources was also used to measure the effect of articles and advisements on the people published in the newspapers. <strong>Results</strong>: A total of 106 various professionals participated in the study. The research reveals that 56 percent of males and 43 percent of females are part of this research; more than 80 percent of respondents belong to the age group of fewer than 40 years. Among the active respondents, 91 percent are said to read the newspaper regularly. The study also shows that 96 percent of respondents are read articles, news, columns related to COVID-19 and particular about Coronavirus. Nearly 91 percent of respondents are in favor that media coverage of COVID-19 has improved their knowledge of Coronavirus. Around 93 percent of respondents agree that media spreading awareness among the people on Coronavirus through newspaper published articles, news, and advisements. The study exhibits that 95 percent of respondents expressed their views that print media has played an active role in disseminating the government directives on Coronavirus and almost 97 percent of the respondents are opined that print media will play a more effective role in spreading awareness on coronavirus. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The respondents expressed that print media has played a vital role in spreading awareness on the pandemic of coronavirus disease. The newspaper spread awareness among the people on coronavirus through newspaper published articles, news and advisements. The newspaper also published a variety of queries and doubts as asked by the people to Doctors on coronvirus.</p> Hemant Kumar Pandey Subhash Kumar Prabhat Dixit Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 322 323 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.033 Coverage evaluation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis in a district of Bundelkhand Region of Uttar Pradesh <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Lymphatic filariasis results in severe disability that leading to severe social and economic burden at each level from individual to family, and community. This study was carried out to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA. <strong>Methods</strong>: From 300 households (1837 individuals) in both rural &amp; urban area were covered in coverage evaluation survey by systematic selection of subunits using probability proportionate to size (PPS). Each household was visited by WHO designated team and data were collected using predesigned questionnaire. Data was compiled on MS-excel spreadsheet, frequency and percentage were calculated. <strong>Results</strong>: The overall effective coverage for all drugs was low (19.1%). The coverage was low, compliance was higher in urban as compared to rural area. Females had better coverage and compliance than males. The primary reasons for drug not offered was nobody came to offer drug, drug not swallowed was not sick, drug swallowed was useful information from drug administrator (DA). Only one female reported adverse effect. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Increase in coverage along with decrease in coverage-compliance gap is needed to achieve filariasis elimination that warrants intense IEC activities using different platforms, development of better drug delivery strategies and strengthening monitoring system.</p> Santosh Kumar Barman Navin Kumar Seema Barman Mohd Maroof Ravi Raj Singh Chouhan Mukesh Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 170 175 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.007 Impact of Supplementary Nutrition on Undernourished Children In An Urban Area Of Meerut- A Longitudinal Study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Infants and pre-school are most susceptible to undernutrition. Integrated Child Development Services is the programme focussing undernourished children by providing them supplementary nutrition. <strong>Aim&amp; Objective</strong>: To study prevalence of undernutrition in 0-6 year old children and to study factors associated with it. To study impact of supplementary nutrition on undernourished children. <strong>Settings and Design</strong>: A longitudinal study. <strong>Methods and Material</strong>: The present longitudinal study was conducted in randomly selected Anganwadis of urban Meerut. Children found to be suffering from under nutrition were followed up at interval of six months to see the impact of supplementary nutrition provided to them at the anganwadi centre. A detailed history of relevant underlying factors responsible for causation of under nutrition were taken from mothers of these children. <strong>Statistical analysis used</strong>: chi square test was used to find out association between risk factors and undernutrition. Risk factor found statistically significant were further analysed using step wise multiple logistic regression analysis. The impact of supplementary nutrition was assessed using paired t test. <strong>Results</strong>: Iron folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, exclusive breast feeding in children, immunization and time of initiating complementary feed were found statistically significant on both chi-square and multiple logistic regression analysis. No impact of supplementary nutrition was found on anthropometric measurements of children. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: The main focus for fighting undernutrition in children (0-6 years) should be on preventing risk factors associated with mothers in antenatal period and during child rearing practices</p> Gargi Pandey Harivansh Chopra Tanveer Bano Seema Jain Ganesh Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 176 181 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.008 Job Burnout Assessment Among Officer Grade Bank Employees of Meerut District <p><strong>Background</strong>: India is in a transitioning state and so is it’s banking sector with wide socioeconomic differences and rapidly growing economy. In order to ensure smooth implementation of these policies, bank employees in banks are required to put in extra labor and hours of work and the fact that policies keep on changing time to time are a constant stressors in bank employees which may lead to burnout. <strong>Methods and Material</strong>: This was cross sectional study carried out among of Officer grade bank employees of urban block Meerut district situated in Uttar Pradesh. A total of 216 samples were collected through self-designed and semi structured questionnaire which included socio demographic profile and Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) for assessing burnout. The simple random sampling technique was applied through computer random tables method for selection of banks and data was analyzed through SPSS19 and Microsoft excel .<strong>Results</strong>: 19.4% bank officers have pathological burnout and 55.1% of bank officers who are at brink of developing burnout. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: The Physical fatigue factor was found to be the least responsible for burnout in our study and the prevalence of burnout was found significantly more among married bank officers, living with nuclear type of family.</p> Alka Singh Rahul Bansal Chhavi Kiran Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 182 187 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.009 Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life among Post-Partum Women Residing in a Resettlement Colony of East Delhi. <p><strong>Abstract</strong>: The postpartum period marks a transition phase in the life of the mother as well as the whole family. Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important aspect for not only mother’s physical and psychological health. The study was conducted in a resettlement colony, Kalyanpuri located in Delhi, India with a sample size of 330 post-partum women and the data was collected in the 6th week of post-partum period using the MOS SF-36 (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey) for health related quality of life. Among the study subjects, 34.2% had the birth order two and they showed the best mean HRQoL score. The mean score was low for the study subjects with complications in the antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum period (52.9 ± 18.4) as well as in foetal complications where the intrapartum period complications had the worst mean HRQoL score. Healthcare workers of the study area visited 91.5% of the subjects during the post-partum period and had better HRQoL mean score. Also, 22.4% subjects had history of mistreatment and abuse with decline in the mean HRQoL scores. Across the study subjects, 54.4% had financial hardships faced by their family members which had poor HRQoL mean scores. This study uncovered various horizons of health related quality of life for assessment of women in the post-partum period which emphasised the modifications and considerations to include quality as one of the determinant and indicator of health.</p> Pallika Singh Sanjeev Kumar Rasania Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 188 195 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.010 Comparison of prices of commonly used drugs in AMRIT pharmacy, Jan Aushadhi Centre and Private chemist shop: An analytical study from a tertiary care centre in Haryana <p><strong>Background</strong>: The price of medicine in India has always been a point of discussion in public domain. The price range of the same drug is very large with more than 100% difference between various brands available in different settings. <strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong> To assess the price of different drugs at Jan Aushasdhi (JA), AMRIT and Private Chemist and to compare the prices of these three outlets so that the issues. <strong>Material and</strong> <strong>Methods</strong>: This institution-based cross-sectional study was carried out from May 2019 to June 2019. A pretested proforma was prepared to compare the prices of 284 different medicines in Jan Aushadhi, AMRIT and private chemist shops. The collected data were entered in an Excel spreadsheet and presented in Proportions, percentages, and mean. <strong>Results</strong>: The price of 284 medicines were compared from JA (Median(IQR)- 15.18(18.75) INR) and Private chemist shop (Median(IQR)-88(111.5) INR) while 249 medicine from AMRIT (Median(IQR)-61.05(78.33) INR). Although the majority of the AMRIT drugs are cheaper than the chemist shop except for 31% of Antipsychotic drugs, 26.6% of antihypertensives, 25% of respiratory drugs, 25% of steroids, 21.9% of antibiotics. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: We concluded that JA is providing drugs cheaper than AMRIT and Private chemist . The prices of medicines offered at AMRIT are lower than market pricing but they are costlier when compared to JA prices.</p> Rajesh Garg Sachin Garg Kamaljit Singh Aniruddh Ranga Amandeep Singh Kuljit Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 196 201 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.011 Time Series Analysis of COVID-19 Data- A study from Northern India <p>The continuing new Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused millions of infections and thousands of fatalities globally. Identification of potential infection cases and the rate of virus propagation is crucial for early healthcare service planning to prevent fatalities. The research community is faced with the analytical and difficult real-world task of accurately predicting the spread of COVID-19. We obtained COVID-19 temporal data from District Surveillance Officer IDSP, Dehradun cum District Nodal Officer- Covid-19 under CMO, Department of Medical Health and Family Welfare, Government of Uttarakhand State, India, for the period, March 17, 2020, to May 6, 2022, and applied single exponential method forecasting model to estimate the COVID-19 outbreak's future course. The root relative squared error, root mean square error, mean absolute percentage error, and mean absolute error were used to assess the model's effectiveness. According to our prediction, 5438 people are subjected to hospitalization by September 2022, assuming that COVID cases will increase in the future and take on a lethal variety, as was the case with the second wave. The outcomes of the forecasting can be utilized by the government to devise strategies to stop the virus's spread.</p> Jayanti Semwal Abhinav Bahuguna Neha Sharma Rajiv Kumar Dikshit Rajeev Bijalwan Piyush Augustine Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 202 206 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.012 Perceptions of Undergraduate Medical Students towards Online Learning in a Medical College in the National Capital Region (NCR), India <p><strong>Background</strong>: Since the COVID-19 pandemic hit the globe, it has not been possible to conduct traditional classroom teaching in view of the closure of schools and colleges in our country since March 2020. Hence, it is important to study the highlights, demerits, and bottlenecks in the implementation of online education from a student’s perspective. <strong>Methods</strong>: The present study was carried out to assess perceptions regarding virtual classroom among undergraduate students of a tertiary medical college in U.P. A pre-designed, semi-structured questionnaire was used. Study was conducted through an online survey. Data was analyzed with the help of SPSS version 21. <strong>Results</strong>: A total of 377 participants were included in the study. More than half of the participants (54.9%) preferred a mixed mode of learning which includes both online and offline learning. Lack of interaction with teachers (66.3%) and fellow students (57.6%) and lack of quiet space at home to listen to online classes (44%) were a few of the perceived demerits of online classes. Internet speed was found to be one of the most challenging issues faced in online learning (78.5%). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Students’ perception of the blended learning mode was positive. They were, however, less enthusiastic about online learning than they were about conventional classroom learning.</p> Tuhina Shree Khushboo Juneja Shalini Srivastava Harsh Mahajan Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 207 212 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.013 Physical, mental, spiritual and social wellbeing of urban population during the COVID-19 lockdown phases: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> COVID 19 pandemic created immense mental &amp; physical agony among human beings worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess the physical, mental, social and spiritual wellbeing of young adults and the elderly, during the lock-down phase of COVID-19. <strong>Methods: </strong>The cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 healthy adults in Bhubaneswar, capital of Odisha. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire pertaining to the physical, mental, social and spiritual health of participants. <strong>Results: </strong>During the lockdown, around two-thirds (65.4%) of the participants reported feeling helpless. The elderly felt more helpless than the young adults. One-third (73, 32.6%) of the participants experienced health issues during the lockdown period. The majority of the study participants (83.8%) mentioned that their family members shared tasks during lockdown which was a very positive sign observed in this study. Faith in God for the elderly and family support for the young adults made them mentally stronger. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Managing pandemic needs a multipronged approach. But focusing on psychosocial health will prevent future unseen mental health pandemics and improve the resilience of mankind.</p> Suchitra Kumari Swayam Pragyan Parida Dinesh Prasad Sahu Puspanjali Jena Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 213 219 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.014 Nutritional Status and its Determinants in Toddlers: A case study of Hilly region of Uttarakhand <p><strong>Background</strong>: Nutrition in early childhood is of utmost importance specifically for first 1000 days. (1) If in this phase nutrition is neglected, it drags the child into the trap of malnutrition. <strong>Aims &amp; Objectives</strong>: The objectives were: assess the nutritional status of children and identify the risk factors related to malnutrition in children (1-3) years. <strong>Methods &amp; Material</strong>: Descriptive exploratory design- conducted in rural villages of Haldwani block, Uttarakhand. Multi stage random sampling technique was used to select 703 children of (1-3) years and their mothers. The children were screened for malnutrition and mothers were interviewed via semi – structured interview schedule. <strong>Results</strong>: It was found that, 74(11%) children were undernourished, 28 (3.9%) were wasted in mild category and 11 (1.5%) in moderate category. About 87 (12%) were found to be stunted in mild to moderate category. Children below 2.5kg at birth [(1.106, 3.817), p= 0.023], non-initiation of breast feed in one hour [(0.979, 3.344), p=0.055], delayed initiation of weaning [(1.162,4.026), p=0.013] and recurrent illness [(1.187,3.447), p=0.009] were factors associated with malnutrition in children at 95% CI. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: It is very important to follow up the identified malnourished children so that in the preschool age the nutritional status can be improved.</p> Pratiti Haldar Lekha Viswanath Ashok Kumar Srivastava Hem Chandra Sati Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 220 226 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.015 Perception of medical students regarding E-learning during lockdown in COVID–19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study in a medical college, North Kerala <p><strong>Background:</strong> The digital learning in this pandemic era of COVID-19 evolved out in a perplexed environment as a viable alternative to offline or traditional classes. The e-learning carries its own merits as well as demerits, but however, this happened to be the only possible solution in this dreaded situation. With respect to medicos, as they are prone to be exposed to environments connected with Covid infected patients, additional care including online classes turned to be the better option. <strong>Aim and Objective:</strong> To determine the perception of medical students regarding e-learning during lockdown in COVID-19 pandemic. <strong>Settings and Design:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students of all the batches in a private medical College, Kozhikode. <strong>Methods and Material:</strong> Primary data were collected using structured Google questionnaire. Stratified sampling method has been adopted and the sample size was 400. <strong>Statistical analysis used:</strong> Data analysed using SPSS 18 software. <strong>Results:</strong> Majority of the participants used Zoom as modality of learning and half of the total participants got adapted to the system over time. During e-learning sessions, most of the medicos expressed their concerns regarding lack of clinical exposure, in addition to their losses in social communication skills. Factors such as the legitimate requirements of clinical phase students, issues of poor internet connectivity and health problems were inclined to demand traditional learning, which were statistically significant. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Even though they were subjected to both online and offline methods of education, majority of respondents preferred traditional learning.</p> Sruthikrishna Punathukandi Meera Sivadasan Nair Nivya Noohiyil Kaithery Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 227 233 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.016 Occupational Exposure to Needle Stick Injuries among Health Care Workers in a Tertiary care hospital: A KAP study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Needle stick injuries (NSIs) are serious occupational health problem related to accidental exposure of health care workers (HCWs) while involved in patient care services. The percutaneous exposure to potentially contaminated blood and body fluids with blood borne pathogens are responsible for significant prevalence of Hepatitis B, C &amp; HIV infections amongst HCWs. <strong>Methods</strong>: This is a descriptive cross sectional study conducted in hospital settings over a period of one year. 178 HCWs were selected for study using systematic random sampling after proportional allocation for each professional category in the hospital. Collected data was processed on SPSS ver 24. The association between needle stick and associated factors were measured using the odds ratio at a 95% confidence interval. The statistical significance was made at a p-value of less than 0.05. <strong>Results</strong> Total of 62 incidences of sustaining a needle stick injury in a year was recorded amongst 178 HCWs. In this study, statistically significant results with p value less than 0.05 was obtained with association with variables like gender [AOR=1.36 (0.64 - 2.68)], experience in years as HCWs [AOR=1.23 (0.32 - 2.12)], profession [AOR=0.063 (0.001- 0.43)], observance of universal precautions as wearing gloves [AOR=0.33 (0.169 – 0.631)] or any training on PEP or universal precautions [AOR=2.29 (1.320 - 4.696)]. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: NSIs have the potential to affect the health system both directly and indirectly. To lessen the dangers and impacts of NSIs stringent training should coordinate the endeavors toward preparing of health care workers, utilization of wellbeing designed gadgets, and diminishing patient burden per health care workers.</p> Tripti Agrawal Nitesh Agrawal Vivek Gupta Barun Bhai Patel Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 234 240 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.017 Age at natural menopause and factors affecting its onset: A cross-sectional study among postmenopausal females in District Dehradun <p><strong>Background</strong>: Menopause has become a popular topic of study as life expectancy rises around the world. The average age at menopause in both developed and developing countries ranges from 45 to 53 years. Factors influencing the extent of ovarian follicle reserve dwindling, such as sociodemographic, menstrual, reproductive, and dietary factors. <strong>Aim and Objective</strong>: The present study aimed to determine the mean age of menopause and to find out the various factors affecting menopause onset. <strong>Methods</strong>: A community based cross-sectional study conducted in rural and urban areas of District Dehradun for a period of 1 year starting 1st August 2020 to 31st July 2021. Data were collected using multistage stratified random sampling from 211 cases of natural menopause. Chi-square was applied as statistical test of significance and p &lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant. <strong>Results</strong>: According to current study, average age menopausal age is 46 years. Variables like sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, reproductive and menstrual factors were found to have a significant relationship with onset of menopause. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Menopause, whether it occurs early or late in life, several factors are responsible for deciding its onset. As a result, it is critical to identify the factors influencing the onset of menopause.</p> Pragya Singh Shaili Vyas Vidisha Vallabh Ruchira Nautiyal Abhay Srivastava Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 241 247 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.018 Awareness, Practice and Level of Anxiety using Coronavirus Anxiety Scale among the Indian Population regarding COVID -19 Pandemic <p><strong>Abstract</strong>: The most important aspect of Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) involves the circulation of trustworthy and accurate information in the public health interest domain. Strict stringency measures such as nationwide lockdown impacted people's mental health. Hence, this study was planned to assess the knowledge, practice, and anxiety among the Indian population about the ongoing pandemic in the initial phase. <strong>Methods</strong>: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted between August 1, 2020, to October 5, 2020. Coronavirus Anxiety Scale was used to determine dysfunctional anxiety. <strong>Results</strong>: Among 553 participants, 73.6% had overall good knowledge of COVID-19 with mean correct score of 6.9±1.1. Majority of participants (97%) wore mask regularly, and 93% of respondents regularly washed their hands with soap and water. Only 14 participants scored ?9 on CAS, suggesting probable cases of dysfunctional anxiety associated with the COVID-19 crisis. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The knowledge and practices of citizens in a nation reflect their preparedness and ability to deal with a pandemic of such proportion. Good knowledge translates to good practices and therefore reduces anxiety among the population. It is deemed necessary that people's knowledge and habits, including the mental impact, be accessed at periodic intervals to track their adaptation to pandemics over time.</p> Tanya Agarwal Prashant Kumar Bajpai Kirti Jaiswal Sandip Kumar Shreya Verma Sushil Kumar Shukla Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 248 253 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.019 Socio-economic Correlates of Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure and Contraceptive Use by Reproductive age-group Females <p><strong>Background</strong>: Oral Contraceptive use, BP and BMI are strongly associated variables in terms of socio economic conditions. Oral Contraceptives are an important and widely accepted contraceptive modality used throughout the world. <strong>Aim &amp; Objective</strong>: This study aims to examine the effects of socio-economic factors on Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood pressure (BP) and contraceptive use by reproductive age-group females of Uttarakhand. <strong>Settings and Design</strong>: This study utilizes nationwide data from the Fourth National Family Health Survey (NFHS-IV). <strong>Methods and Material</strong>: Information was collected from Indian Institute of Population Sciences (IIPS) Mumbai and 17,300 women of Uttarakhand were considered for this study. <strong>Statistical analysis used</strong>: For inter age-group comparisons of blood pressure, BMI and socio-demographic indicators, analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique has been used. <strong>Results</strong>: The variation in mean age at menarche was found to be significant (p&lt; 0.01, ANOVA). The numbers of live births over the women's total lifetime were lower in the younger age groups (p&lt;0.01, ANOVA). <strong>Conclusions</strong>: The important findings of present study were that the use of contraceptive tended to have increased BMI and elevated blood pressure, even though the magnitude of these was little (equal to 4% and 40% respectively).</p> Richa Sinha Sonam Maheshwari Puneet Gupta Debabrata Roy . Deepshikha Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 254 258 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.020 Prevalence and correlates of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Nursing Students <p><strong>Background: </strong>Nursing students experience significant amount of depression, anxiety and stress throughout their undergraduate education and there is limited evidence regarding magnitude of depression, anxiety and stress among them in India. <strong>Aims &amp; Objectives: </strong>To assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress and associated factors among nursing students. <strong>Materials &amp; Methods: </strong>A web based cross sectional study was conducted among 214 nursing students of B.Sc. Nursing College, Dibrugarh in May 2021 using Google form containing structured questionnaire and DASS21 by convenience sampling. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess determinants of depression, anxiety and stress. <strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of Depression, anxiety and stress was 55.1%, 63.1% and 29.9% respectively. On multiple regression analysis, mother’s occupation of the students was found to be significant predictor for depression and anxiety, getting less vacation was found to be significant predictor for depression and stress, satisfaction with nursing profession as a significant predictor for depression and caste as a significant predictor for stress. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> A high prevalence of Depression, anxiety and stress was found among nursing students.</p> Chetanjit Baruah Hiranya Saikia Kajal Gupta Puneet Ohri Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 259 264 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.021 Evaluation of Mass Drug Administration to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis in Surguja and Surajpur District, Chhattisgarh <p><strong>Background</strong>: Mass Drug Administration of a single dose of DEC was launched on June 5, 2004 by the Government of India. MDA coverage increased gradually from 72.42% in 2004 to 88.96% in 2014. However, compliance has remained relatively low in most of the endemic areas as in 9 endemic Districts in State of Chhattisgarh. In Chhattisgarh State, Lymphatic Filariasis affected 14,818 people in the year 2011 and 13921 in the year 2013 with demonstrated manifestation. <strong>Objectives</strong>: To assess the coverage and compliance along with factors affecting compliance regarding MDA implementation in Surguja and Surajpur District of Chhattisgarh. <strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from July-September 2021 in two district of Chhattisgarh. The division of segments and selection of the households was done based on the WHO criteria of coverage evaluation survey field guide in which from 30 villages, 450 households were covered. <strong>Result</strong>: The overall coverage rate was 95.55% in Surguja and 89.16% in Surajpur District. The overall compliance was 89.3% with Coverage-Compliance gap of 4.12. The Effective Coverage Rate was 89.3% in 2243 eligible population of Surguja and Surajpur District. Coverage and Compliance was found more in females as compared to males but was found to be statistically not significant. Coverage and Compliance was found more in Surguja district as compared to Surajpur district. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Training programme for drug distributors should emphasize more on how to address the fear of side effects among beneficiaries and other reasons of low compliance for the benefit of the MDA programme.</p> Harshal Gajanan Mendhe Manish A Prasad Pralhad Potdar Akash Verma Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 265 269 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.022 Prevention of initiation of smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption among rural children <p><strong>Background</strong>: India Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2019 observed that 8.5% of the young age group (13-15 years) consume tobacco (9.6 % are boys and 7.4 % are girls). No interventional studies among adolescents were conducted before the initiation of the SLT use. <strong>Aims &amp; Objectives:</strong> To estimate the prevalence of consumption of tobacco and non-tobacco products and to provide school based interventions to bring behavioral changes. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: An interventional study was carried out in Primary Schools. For estimation of the prevalence of tobacco and non tobacco use all the students of 1st to 5th while for the interventions, 4th and 5th standard were selected. Baseline data and change in the behavior at the end of one year was collected. FGD with key informants were also conducted. Descriptive Statistics was conducted. <strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption and non-tobacco product was found to be 1.3% and 36.5% respectively. After intervention 40.5% students had quit non tobacco products. Findings of FGD suggested that children should not be sent to purchase tobacco products on behalf of their parents. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: School based intervention and sensitization of the field workers along with knowing their perceptions for the predictors of consumption could be useful.</p> Parimalkumar Ramanbhai Patel Shikha Vikas Jain Aroor Bhagyalaxmi Bhargav Bipinbhai Dave Narendra Kumar Ragunath Hinal Mahendrabhai Bhadesiya Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 270 275 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.023 An exploratory study using the OMI scale to assess the opinion toward mental illness among young adults <p><strong>Background: </strong>Public perception of mental illness is critical for successful treatment seeking behaviour as well as for early diagnosis and surveillance of disease. Two hundred eleven young patients were interviewed at Department of psychiatry, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Varanasi with the help of consecutive sampling method. <strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the opinion towards mental illness among young adults by using the opinion on mental illness scale (OMI). <strong>Methods: </strong>Data was collected using the opinion about mental illness scale (OMI) which consists of 51 questions out of which, 15 questions directly related to the cause, care, and management of mental illness were randomly selected and analyzed. Analysis was done showing Percentage and chi-square tests to see the significance of scores between the respondents. <strong>Results: </strong>The finding shows that more than 70% of respondents believe that mental illness is a consequence of bad behavior, lack of willpower, or negative beliefs and gap in the treatment seeking behavior and understanding the cause of disease was found. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Opinions on Mental health have received increasing attention as a useful strategy to promote early identification of mental illness, reduce stigma and enhance help-seeking behaviors. As part of the National Mental Health Programme, there is a need to raise awareness in order to enhance understanding of mental illness in facilitating early diagnosis and treatment of disease.</p> Mridul Mishra Alok Kumar Mona Srivastava Sangeeta Kansal Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 276 283 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.024 To study the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among medical students <p><strong>Background</strong>: Risk of developing latent tuberculosis infection increases in medical students with their higher exposure to TB care facilities. <strong>Objective: </strong>To study the prevalence of latent TB infection among students attending professional degrees MBBS, BDS, MD, MS, MDS at King George’s Medical University, India. <strong>Methods</strong>: This study was carried out with Tuberculin skin testing among students and active TB cases were excluded. A standard dose of 0.1?mL of purified protein derivative was slowly injected intra dermally into non-dominant forearm. After 48-72 hours, the reaction was estimated by measuring the transverse diameter of the induration. <strong>Results:</strong> Total 561 students had given consent to get enrolled. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection was significant with period of clinical exposure (<em>p-value</em> &lt; 0.05), average size of induration (<em>p-value</em> &lt; 0.001), and history of prior Tuberculin Skin Test (<em>p-value</em> &lt; 0.001). However it was not significant with the age (p-value &gt; 0.05), gender (<em>p-value</em><em> </em>&gt; 0.05), and history of contact with active cases of TB (p-value &gt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection is higher in post graduate students followed by interns and final year students due to more exposure to patients in wards and clinics at King George’s Medical University, India.</p> Prateek Kumar Dinkar Santosh Kumar Sukriti Kumar Sanjeev Kumar Verma Sandeep Kumar Ankita Kamal Esha Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 284 288 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.025 A study to Assess Anxiety, Stress and Depression among MBBS interns working in Covid care Isolation facility of a tertiary level Hospital: An Observational study <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The Emergence of new Delta strain of Corona virus has created havoc with all health care systems across the globe, there has been tremendous pressure due to shortage of health care workers forcing government to involve MBBS interns to overcome the shortage of health staff in Covid care. <strong>Aims &amp; Objectives</strong>: To assess magnitude of anxiety, stress and depression among MBBS interns working in Covid Isolation facility of Government Medical College, Patiala. <strong>Material and methods</strong>: The Google form was created and the link to the online questionnaire was circulated through whatsapp group to the MBBS Interns working in Covid isolation facility during June to July 2021. The form included two instruments the Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4) and the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety-4 (PHQ-4). <strong>Results</strong>: A total of 144 interns participated in the survey .Patient Health Questionnaires and Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4 ) scores of interns were 56% and 49% respectively. Anxiety and depression symptoms requiring further evaluation were seen in 19% of the Interns. Univariate analysis of PHQ-4 and PSS-4 shows statistically significant association with past history of psychiatric ailment .<strong>Conclusion</strong>: Careful monitoring of psychological and mental wellbeing of interns during the pandemic will go a long way in mitigating the worsening psychological wellbeing of budding doctors and interns.</p> Ravinder Khaira Vishal Malhotra Simmi Oberoi Sowmiya Nehrudurai Mann Chahat Harmanpreet Kaur Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 289 293 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.026 Knowledge, preferences, practices, and attitudes about breastfeeding among postnatal mothers in Uttarakhand, India: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Breastmilk is the natural and safest first food for the newborn. It has nutritional, immunological, behavioural, and offers mother-infant bonding. <strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of the study was to explore the knowledge, practice, and attitudes of mothers towards breastfeeding. <strong>Material &amp; Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted among conveniently selected 950 postnatal mothers attending the immunization clinic and paediatric OPD with their children for vaccination and treatment of other minor illnesses from April 2018 to November 2019 in selected hospitals of Rishikesh, Uttarakhand. Mothers were face-to-face interviewed using structured knowledge, preference, practices, and attitude questionnaires about newborn breastfeeding. Tools were validated and tested for reliability. <strong>Results</strong>: The average knowledge scores (11.72±1.78) indicated that mothers have good knowledge about breastfeeding. Most mothers (81.45%) fed their babies with colostrum, and 82% were exclusively breastfeeding. It was also reported about top feeds like honey, coconut water, grape water, ghuttee, lactogen among about 20% of the participants. The average score of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) (58.11±6.44) lay in the range of neutral attitudes related to breastfeeding practices among the mothers. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Breastfeeding practices were adequate among many mothers, but there were practices of throwing colostrum, topfeed baby and early initiation of weaning. Thus, it is necessary to create awareness among the mothers and their families about the correct practices of feeding the newborn baby; eventually, the attitude will change.</p> Prasuna Jelly Malar Kodi Meenakshi Sharma Suresh K Sharma Rakesh Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 294 300 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.027 Urban Flood Relief Management in COVID-19 Pandemic <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Urban floods were addressed as a separate disaster after the historical 2005 Mumbai floods. Urban flood peaks are 2-8 times and volume 6 times when compared with rural floods. We are now handling multiple disasters simultaneously due to the Covid-19 Pandemic. The river plains of north India are prone to floods in the monsoon season and geographical location of Prayagraj doubles the damage because it faces wrath from two sides. Very few researches have been conducted on urban floods and evidence needs to be generated from the field. <strong>Methodology</strong>: This qualitative research was planned with an objective to identify the difficulties faced in operating an urban flood relief camp during superimposed burden of COVID-19 Pandemic and to suggest remedial measures from the public health aspect. We conducted in-depth interviews of nodal officers, health staff and beneficiaries of the identified camps. Informed consent was taken from participant after explaining them about the research. <strong>Results</strong>: The findings from the interviews were categorized into 3phases of flood relief i.e. before the floods, during floods and lastly post flood. The most crucial work before floods is to spread awareness about do’s and don’ts in detail. Next was identification of the local people actually affected by flood. The space and facilities at few centers was low for the population load. Urban flood management needs a major overhauling of public health infrastructure to handle such disasters in future. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The officials were working hard to make the homeless feel as if they are on a picnic. The database of beneficiaries should be strengthened and should also include students and labourers, anyone who is a flood victim and not only local flood victims.</p> Abhishek Tiwari Khurshid Parveen Shivendra Kumar Singh Manish Manar Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 301 305 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.028 Integration of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases (NAFLD) into NPCDCS programme: A recent initiative in India <p>Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging public health problem globally. NAFLD is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide and is the most common cause of abnormal liver enzymes in many developed countries. NAFLD is estimated to afflict approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. An estimated 20-30 % of general population is afflicted from it globally. In India NAFLD could be a silent epidemic with its prevalence ranging from 9-32%. Studies have shown, strong association of NAFLD with major Non Communicable diseases (NCD) like Diabetes, Obesity, CVD, Chronic Kidney diseases, Cancers, etc. Perceiving the threat of NAFLD and the central role of hepatic accumulation of fat in the pathogenesis of other NCD, the Government of India (GoI) has taken steps to include NAFLD in the public health agenda. It has included it in the national NCD programme, i.e., National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) in 2021. India has become the first country in the world to start a national programme for preventive efforts for NAFLD. The present review describes public health relevance of NAFLD and the process of integration of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases (NAFLD) into NPCDCS programme in India.</p> Prerna Srivastava Manya Prasad Umesh Kapil Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 150 153 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.003 Disaster and Mental Health Preparedness in India: A Scoping Review <p><strong>Background</strong>: Disaster and mental health preparedness are inseparable domains highlighted during all the major disasters in India. To build Disaster-Mental health Preparedness (Disaster MHP), one has to understand the existing strategies, systemic efforts, and ground-level implementation. In this scoping review, we have analyzed the mental health preparedness efforts during major disasters in India. <strong>Methodology</strong>: We followed the Peters MDJ et al framework for scoping review named ‘Guidance for conducting systematic scoping reviews. This included the searching relevant articles on PubMed and google Scholar, and concept-context of the review. <strong>Results</strong>: The review identified major efforts taken during ten disasters in past 40 years and mapping of the potential areas for development of sustainable efforts towards Disaster MHP. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: This is the first systematic scoping review from India that provides insight into strength and sustainability of disaster mental health preparedness in India. The mapping of the review focuses on the models emerged from Bhopal, Odisha, Tamilnadu and NIMHANS for the future infrastructure, capacity building, and environment required for Disaster-MHP in India.</p> Roshan Sutar Anindo Majumdar Senthil Amudhan Parmeshwar Satpathy Vijender Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 154 160 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.004 Repercussion of Covid-19 on Health and Nutritional Status of Elderly: Current Scenario <p>Ageing is an inevitable process with numerous changes in a physiological, biological, cognitive, and social environment. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented public health crisis globally. Both the problems adversely affect the nutritional and health status of the elderly. Malnutrition, increase risk of chronic morbidities, low socioeconomic status along with social deprivations influence the health and well-being of old age. Lack of physical activity is common due to loss of skeletal muscle mass and an increase of fat mass eventually causes functional inability. The review aimed to report the impact of Covid-19 on the health and nutritional status of the elderly. A thorough recent literature search was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases using specific keywords related to the aims. All related articles published on COVID-19 during 2020 and their effect on health and nutrition in the elderly were retrieved. The study found that nutritional status influences mortality and co-morbidities among the elderly during the COVID-19 situation. Furthermore, the study found that though nutritional indicators, that is, overweight or obese, significantly increase the risk of co-morbid conditions among older adults, good nutrition reduces the risk of all-cause mortality. Although ageing is an irreversible process, it is never too late to start practicing a healthy behavioral lifestyle for achieving healthy ageing.</p> Preetika Khenduja Manisha Sabharwal Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 161 166 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.005 Omicron and vaccine booster dose – an update <p>Mutations in coronavirus is not unheard off. The variant, Omicron B.1.1.529 has overall 50 mutations and is considered as a variant of concern. Though the new variant has shown changes throughout its genome, S gene changes predominate. Significant changes in the S encoding gene, S gene, influences not only the transmissibility properties of SARS-CoV-2 but also the efficacy of existing vaccines. Increased transmissibility and ability of this variant to evade host immune responses conferred either due to past infections or due to vaccination driving increase in number of infections. However, the severity of the infections is low in comparison to its predecessors. A meta-analysis of ten studies analyzing the effect of COVID-19 vaccine booster dose, it was found studies report 10-to-42-fold increase in omicron neutralization. COVID appropriate behaviors, if followed rigidly can bring a meaningful change in the viral spread and resultant health impacts.</p> Pushpa Nagavalli Basavanna Hatur Basavanagowdappa Archana Siddaiah Apurba Patra Viveka Srinivasan Sudha Makam Janardhan Rachna Pasi Kumar Satish Ravi Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 167 169 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.006 Combating COVID-19 with Proficiency and Precision <p>It has been two years since the first case of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) was detected in India in the state of Kerala in March 2020. (1) The Government and the citizens of India have united together to combat the virus since then. India is the largest democracy in the world and the second highest populous country with an estimated 1.36 billion population. The country has witnessed three major waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in the past 3 years, the second being the worse. In the month of June 2022, India has reported a cumulative total of approximately 4.34 crore confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 511,903 deaths. The state of Maharashtra has been the worst effected in all three waves. Presently the recovery rate from COVID-19 in India has crossed 98%. (2)</p> Suneela Garg Pallavi Singh Pradeep Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 144 146 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.001 Knowledge and attitude of peripheral health workers regarding Non-Communicable diseases in a Rural area of Rajasthan <p><strong>Background</strong>: Mortality due to Non communicable disease (NCD) has increased from 50% to 60% in India from 2004 to 2014. Increasing mortality due to NCD has compelled Government of India to launch a national program (NPCDCS). This program has involved peripheral health workers hence this study was conducted to assess level of knowledge and attitude of peripheral health workers working in rural area of CHC Naila regarding NCDs. <strong>Methods</strong>: Present study was conducted at CHC Naila, Rajasthan, during June to Dec 2019. All (38) peripheral health staff working under CHC Naila were assessed and categorised regarding NCD and NPCDCS program. <strong>Results</strong>: Majority (77%) peripheral health workers had more than ten years of field experience. All have heard about NPCDCS program and type of NCDs covered under it. they were aware of sign &amp; symptoms of common NCDs, however 18.42% of these were not aware of their role of community awareness about risk factors of NCDs and conducting regular screening. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Though the level of awareness of health workers regarding type of NCDs, its consequences and risk factors was good however skill development training is needed so that they can screen people effectively and motivate them for healthy life style for optimum result.</p> Sadhana Meena Monika Rathore Ajay Gupta Pragya Kumawat Arpit Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 306 310 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.029 Clinical Profile of Indoor Covid-19 Patients at a Medical Institute In India: A Retrospective analysis <p><strong>Background</strong>: COVID-19 has caused a very high burden of morbidity and mortality across the world, India being also badly affected. The disease has a wide spectrum ranging from asymptomatic to severe illness and death. Research work on the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients is scarce in India. <strong>Objectives</strong>: This study was conducted to know the clinico-epidemiological profile of indoor hospitalized Covid 19 patients. <strong>Methods</strong>: a retrospective analysis (record based) conducted at a designated COVID tertiary care center. Study period-1st August 2020 to 31st October 2020. Study Unit- Laboratory confirmed COVID 19 patients admitted in the hospital. Sample size- All the 894 patients with complete record were included in the study. <strong>Results</strong>: The mean age was 47.68± 17.62 years. Around 14.1% of the population was asymptomatic. 75.7% were classified as having a mild disease. The cure rate was 82.9% and deaths were reported in 9.4%. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our findings were similar to findings observed in other studies. A positive significant correlation was noticed between age, duration, clinical severity and outcome of patient. The clinical severity was also found to be associated with age, duration of symptoms and outcome of patient </p> Mariyam Khwaja Deeapk Chopra Pankaj Kumar Verma Nidhi Jauhari Shadiya Shehnaz Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 311 316 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.030 National Policy for Rare Diseases, 2021 – A critical perspective <p>More than 8% of the global population is affected by a rare disease and &gt;50% affected are children (30% of whom will die before 5 years). There are 6,000-8,000 classified rare diseases – 80% are genetically based – with less than 500 FDA approved treatments (or &lt;5% have therapies) available to treat them. Lack of standard definition and community-based epidemiological data in India limits the estimation of prevalence and/or disease burden; though extrapolations at 6% to 8% show 72 to 96 million affected individuals. The Government of India approved the “National Policy for Rare Diseases, 2021” on 30th March 2021. It is a step in the right direction; at the time it necessitates optimal utilization of allocated resources and timely appraisal of the policy itself.</p> Manju Dubey Mohan Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 34 2 324 326 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i02.034