Indian Journal of Community Health <p>The Journal provides an avenue to medical scientists for publication of original research work so as to facilitate use of research for public health action. The scope of the Journal is broad. Original research articles are invited on public health, primary health care, epidemiology, health administration, health systems, health economics, health promotion, public health nutrition, communicable and non-communicable diseases, maternal and child health, occupational and environmental health, social and preventive medicine which have potential to promote evidence-based public health action. The Journal also include editorial, commentaries, perspectives, state of the art reviews, research briefs, policy and practice, reports from the field, public health classics, letters to the editor and book reviews.</p> MRI Publication Pvt. Ltd. en-US Indian Journal of Community Health 0971-7587 Impact of Celebrity Suicides on mental health of vulnerable population <p>Suicide is culminating into a grave public health concern. Approximately 800,000 people worldwide commit suicide annually, with 3/4th owing to low- middle-income countries.(1) In 2016, the suicide rate in India was 16.5, exceeding the global average of 10.5/1,00,000.(1) Suicide is the deliberate ending of one's own life(2) and primarily done due to persistent sense of despair, depression, drug misuse, and various personal and financial stress factors. One such trigger is suicide by an eminent figure, also known as werthering effect, modelling effect, or copycat suicide. This phenomenon commonly affects the adolescent and younger adults. In India, the 15-29 age group were found most vulnerable.(1) Nearly 5% of consecutive suicides occur after a celebrity death primarily among young, female, and unemployed without being prompted by adverse life circumstances.(3) Given the global gravity of suicide and India's contribution to it, it is critical to identify the psychopathology and risk factors behind it.</p> Santosh Kumar Sapna Negi Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 451 451 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.026 Diabetes Awareness & Its Challenges- A Hammering Issue <p>Diabetes is one of the most common non communicable diseases affecting many people of our country. India being a diabetic capital of world is facing a major epidemic of same. After Covid -19 pandemic its become more evident that person who were having deranged blood sugar level were more at risk of getting infections. So its very important to create awareness of same. According to National Family Health Survey -5 (NFHS-5) men &amp; women with high or very high blood sugar level (&gt;140mg/dl) who are taking medicines were 15.6 % &amp; 13.5% respectively. Females 15 years &amp; above whose blood sugar levels were high or very high were 6.1 &amp; 6.3 % and men with same were 7.3 &amp; 7.2 %(1). These findings were added first time in NFHS survey as more and more population are getting this silent but killer disease. The main risk factors for this disease are very well known like modifiable risk factors are obesity specially central obesity, gestational diabetes, sedentary life style, a highly saturated fat diet, reduced intake of dietary fibers, malnutrition related diabetes, excessive alcohol consumption etc (2).</p> Kajal Srivastava Chaitali Borgaonkar Subhash Johnson Anil Mahajan Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 452 452 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.027 Current Status of Anaemia Among 6- 59-Month Old Children In India – What Does the NHFS Fact Sheet Speak? <p><strong><em>Introduction-</em></strong></p> <p>India has the highest rate of child anemia among developing countries. To gain the most up-to-date picture of child anemia in India. We used the data of 6 to 59 months old children from the fifth cycle of the National Family Health Survey conducted in 2019–21. The study's goals were to shape the pervasiveness of anaemia in children in state of India, age group and zone, as well as the relationship between socioeconomic factors and anaemia.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology-</em></strong>The&nbsp;presented&nbsp;study is a secondary data analysis based on the data from the NFHS-5&nbsp;and secondary literature.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>-</em> The study found that in India in 2019–&nbsp;21, 67.1%&nbsp;of&nbsp;children of specified age 6-59 months were anaemic, an increase&nbsp;of 8.5%&nbsp;points since the NFHS-4&nbsp;study conducted in 2015–16&nbsp;i.e.,&nbsp;67.1% and as compared with NFHS-4 (58.6%), despite of&nbsp;the significant increase in the consumption of iron-folic acid (IFA) tablets under INIPI. The&nbsp;data show that the number was higher in rural India (68.3 percent) compared to urban India (64.2 percent). Unfortunately, recent Economic development and the national anaemia control programme have not resulted in a significant reduction in anaemia prevalence in India.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>- According to the study, the percentage of children in India was anemia increased by 8.5% in NFHS-5 as compared with previous NFHS-4 survey which found to be at 58.6%.</p> Neha Sahrawat Avinash Kaur Sodhi Sidharth Sekhar Mishra Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 453 453 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.028 Implementation challenges of Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana: A Cross- Sectional study in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh <p><strong>Background</strong>: Ayushman Bharat – Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana has been launched to provide financial protection expenditure to nearly 500 million vulnerable Indians. For expanding the coverage under the scheme, it is necessary to understand the perspective of health care service providers involved in the scheme. <strong>Aim &amp; Objective</strong>: To find out the bottlenecks in implementation of PMJAY scheme using empanelled hospitals’ perspective <strong>Settings and Design</strong>: Cross sectional study <strong>Methods and Material</strong>: 8 Public and 23 Private hospitals were selected through Simple Random Sampling from the list of PMJAY empanelled hospitals. The PMJAY Medical Officer co-ordinators in the empanelled hospitals were interviewed using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. <strong>Statistical analysis used</strong>: Data was analysed using descriptive statistics in Epiinfo software. <strong>Results</strong>: Among the 31 empanelled hospitals studied, 93.5% were satisfied with the process for empanelment under PMJAY. 64.5% hospitals were not satisfied with the Health Benefit Packages. 77.4% hospitals perceived the PMJAY to be poorer as compared to private health insurance with reasons being poor grievance reprisal, poor claim processing and settlement, denial of reimbursement of health packages, poor rates of health packages and little information about the scheme. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Various hurdles are being faced in the implementation of the scheme. There definitely remains a huge scope for further improvements so as to enhance the insurance coverage in the country.</p> Niharika Verma Tanveer Bano Harivansh Chopra Ganesh Singh Chhaya Mittal Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 330 333 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.002 Determinants of Reproductive Tract Infection among married women in rural and peri-urban areas of Aligarh: A cross sectional Study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI) have a direct impact on reproductive and child health through infertility, cancers, and pregnancy complications, and they have an indirect impact through their role in facilitating the sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. <strong>Objectives</strong>: To find the prevalence and determinants of RTI/STI among married women of reproductive age group in rural and peri-urban areas of Aligarh. <strong>Methods</strong>: The data were collected by using a pretested, semi-structured with both open and closed-ended questionnaire from 500 married women of reproductive age group. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 20.0 Proportion, frequencies, ?2, and logistic regression were used to interpret the data. <strong>Results</strong>: Prevalence of RTI/STI symptoms was found to (42.8%) in rural areas and 37.6 % in peri-urban areas. Strong association was found in study subjects having lower educational status, who were not using any contraceptive method, not following good menstrual hygiene, early marriage age had husband history of RTI/STI, had a history of abortion, had a history of violence, and increased parity. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Prevalence of symptoms found to be associated with these females having low educational status, early age of marriage, high parity, partner history of reproductive Tract Infections, history of violence etc. So, there should be more focus on improvement in these factors to reduce the prevalence.</p> Shivangi Sharma Saira Mehnaz Mohammad Athar Ansari Ali Jafar Abedi Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 334 340 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.003 Disparity in Relation to Covid-19 Preventive Behaviour and Associated Myths among Rural and Urban Residents of Lucknow: A Community Based Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> For curbing Covid-19 disease, adequate knowledge, attitude, and practices of both rural and urban population for Covid-19 disease prevention is required along with busting of the associated myths. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of urban and rural residents of Lucknow district regarding covid-19 preventive behaviour and associated myths. <strong>Methodology:</strong> A community-based study was conducted among 420 rural and 421 urban residents of Lucknow. Multistage random sampling was done to select the study subjects. A pre-designed pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the information regarding the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the residents for covid-19 disease causes, prevention, and treatment. Further, KAP scoring was done to compare the two groups. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the rural and urban residents was 31.48 ± 12.05 and 30.93 ± 11.96 years respectively. Only 40.4 % urban and 25.5 % rural people had correct knowledge about social distancing (p&lt;0.0001). Knowledge regarding quarantine for covid-19 disease prevention was less among the urban residents (64.6%) as compared to rural (70.5%) (p=0.035). More than one-third (37.6%) of the rural resident believed in the myth that alcohol can prevent the covid-19 disease (p=0.003). 68.8 and 70.5 percent rural and urban residents had positive attitude towards the Indian government’ efforts in curbing the disease. Majority of the urban (90%) and rural (87.6%) residents wore mask when they went out. Only one-fourth of the urban (24.7%) and rural (22.9%) had correct practices for the duration of hand washing. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The knowledge was more among the urban people, attitude and practices were almost similar among both the rural and urban residents while myths were more observed among the rural residents.</p> Vinita Shukla Amit Kaushik Beena Sachan Arvind Kumar Singh Rashmi Kumari Sunil Dutt Kandpal Sugandha Jauhari Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 341 347 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.004 Impact of health education on knowledge and attitude of self-breast examination among female nursing students <p><strong>Background: </strong>Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and a leading cause of death worldwide, including in India. Breast cancer usually shows a slow development rate, and when it is recognized in the early stages, successful treatment results can be achieved. Breast self-examination is a screening option for young women. Health awareness programs on screening and early detection are the cornerstones for reducing the morbidity and mortality resulting from breast cancer.<strong> Objective: </strong>To assess the impact of health education on knowledge and attitude of self-breast examination among nursing students. <strong>Study Design: </strong>The present interventional study was conducted between September and October 2019. <strong>Setting: </strong>This study was done among 79 nursing students of a tertiary care hospital situated in a central district of Uttar Pradesh.<strong> Main Outcome Measures: </strong>The self-reported pre-designed and structured questionnaire was used. It included three sections: 1. Sociodemographic profile 2. Knowledge regarding self-breast examination (SBE) 3. Attitude regarding self-breast examination (SBE). Knowledge and attitude scores were calculated and divided into the poor, average, and good categories.<strong> Results: </strong>There were 87.3% of girls had prior knowledge of the self-breast examination, while 12.7% of girls were not aware of the self-breast examination. Post-intervention, there was a significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in their knowledge about self-breast examination.<strong> Conclusion and Relevance: </strong>Planned teaching intervention had a significant impact on the knowledge and attitude of self-breast examination. The knowledge and attitude were poor at the early stages, but it had increased significantly after the health education intervention.</p> Pooja Pathak Prashant Kumar Bajpai Kirti Jaiswal Sandip Kumar Mudit Chauhan Tanya Agarwal Dhiraj Kumar Srivastava Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 348 351 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.005 An assessment and correlation of emotional Intelligence and mental health of medical students <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Emotions like joy, anger, grief, jealousy, love, fear make our life worthwhile. Whatever we do, incites some emotion in us. If we are able to enjoy our emotions, without them having excessive control over us, then we can make ours as well as others’ lives better. Aim of the study was to assess and correlate emotional Intelligence with mental health. <strong>Methods</strong>: Type of study: Descriptive type of cross sectional study. <strong>Sampling</strong>: Simple random sampling. <strong>Study population</strong>: Under graduate students in a private medical college in western Uttar Pradesh. <strong>Study duration</strong>: 1/07/2019 to 1/09/2019. <strong>Sample size</strong>: 246.<strong> Results</strong>: The average emotional intelligence score was 26.82 with standard deviation of ±5.80. Average emotional intelligence among males was 27.04(±6.72) and was 26.63(±5.07) among females. Spearman Rank correlation coefficient “r” =0.789, showed highly positive correlation between ranks from both the score. (p=0.0000). <strong>Conclusions</strong>: The medical students showing higher scores of emotional intelligence are less likely to be mentally stressed.</p> Huma Khan Rakshit Gupta Saurabh Mishra Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 352 356 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.006 Prevalence and Pattern of Substance Abuse among 18 to 60 years Male in a Rural Area of District Etawah, Uttar Pradesh <p><strong>Abstract</strong>: Adolescent and young people’s behavior is of major concern due to Substance abuse. According to WHO, Substance abuse is consistently or sporadic drug use inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice. Globally, alcohol and tobacco as a risk factors cause 4.0% and 4.1% of the overall burden of disability respectively. <strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the prevalence of substance abuse among 18 to 60 years’ male in rural Etawah and to identify type and pattern of substance abuse. <strong>Material and Methods</strong>: It was a community based cross sectional study carried out in five block of district Etawah for a period of one and half year. 1500 participants were interviewed using pre designed pre-tested questionnaire and data regarding socio demographic profile and pattern of abuse were collected. Data was entered in Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed by SPSS version 24 using appropriate statistical test. <strong>Result</strong>: Among 1500 participants, majority were below 30 years of age (i.e. 42.8%). In this study prevalence of Substance use among was 47% [707/1500]. Among all the other substance use, smokeless tobacco showed highest prevalence. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Substance use is common in both urban as well as in rural area. So there is a need to educate and aware people regarding bad effects of drug abuse.</p> Jyoti Mehra Kripashankar Nayak Pradip Kharya Kiran Krishnappa Krishnappa Pankaj Kumar Jain Abhinav Gangwar Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 357 361 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.007 Practice of menstrual hygiene among school going adolescent girls in the rural areas of district Muzaffarnagar <p><strong>Background: </strong>Every year, May 28 is considered as the Global Menstrual Hygiene Day. Many studies have revealed that most of the adolescent girls had incomplete and inaccurate information about the menstrual physiology and hygiene. Hygiene related practices during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it has a health impact in terms of increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections (RTI) and other health problems. <strong>Aim &amp; Objectives: </strong>To find out the menstrual hygiene practices and their association with socio-demographic characteristics of study participants.<strong> Material and Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted among 286 school going adolescents girls in the age group of 11-19 years in 5 schools (three government and two private) in the rural area of district Muzaffarnagar. Study was conducted in December, 2021 using a pre- designed, pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analysed statistically and chi square test was applied.<strong> Results:</strong> Most of the girls achieved menarche at the age of 10-13 years (79.7%). Mothers of around 83.5% girls were illiterate and these girls were less aware about menstrual hygiene practices. Only 63% girls knew about menstruation before menarche. According to 75.5% girls, source of menstrual bleeding was vagina and only 65.7% girls knew about the physiology of menstruation.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>The study shows that there is significant lack of knowledge among girls regarding menstruation. Only 62% girls use sanitary pads as absorbent material due to various reasons like shyness, high cost, etc. Majority of girls had restrictions of not touching kitchen items and not to take bath during menses. There is a need to make the girls aware regarding menstrual hygiene by various health awareness programs in schools and the community.</p> Nidhi Nain Nirankar Singh Lubna Zarin Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 362 366 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.008 Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among blood donors during the COVID-19 outbreak <p><strong>Background</strong>: Assessments of the blood donors’ knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceptions of this infection are essential for controlling the spread of COVID-19. <strong>Aim and objectives</strong>: This study aimed to evaluate the KAP among blood donors towards COVID 19 pandemic and how to increase the number of blood donations during pandemic. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This study was conducted among 630 blood donors at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, at a tertiary care center in North India. It was an observational study. <strong>Statistical analysis</strong>: The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. To correlate variables Chi-square test was used. <strong>Results</strong>: The knowledge score of demographic variables marital status, education &amp; occupation showed a significant association, while its association with age, gender, and religion was insignificant. The entire demographic variables under study showed a significant association with Attitude questionnaire 1. According to univariate analysis, the variables Intercept, Unemployed and Physical Labour showed significant impact on knowledge level with the corresponding effect size 0.10 and 0.022. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study reveals that blood donors have good knowledge with positive attitudes and practices. By improving the knowledge with the help of health education platforms, the number of blood donations will also increase.</p> Ashutosh Singh Pradeep Kumar Maurya Archana Solanki Tulika Chandra Beena Sachan Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 367 373 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.009 Effect of COVID 19 pandemic on time to care, use of ambulance, admission characteristics, demography, injury characteristics, management and outcome of Paediatric Orthopaedic trauma patients admitted to the trauma centre <p><strong>Background</strong>: Lockdown imposed to limit the spread of COVID 19 may have had a significant effect on the time to care, demography, injury causation, injury characteristics, volume and nature of admission, management and outcome of paediatric orthopaedic trauma patients. <strong>Objective</strong>: To document the effect of lockdown on the time to care at KGMU, use of ambulance, volume and type of admissions, demography, injury causation, injury characteristics, management and outcome of paediatric orthopaedic trauma patients. <strong>Methods</strong>:. This record review compared age, sex, type of admission, mechanism of injury, injury characteristics, type of treatment, vehicle used for transport, and outcome among patients admitted in pre-lockdown, lockdown and post lockdown. <strong>Results</strong>: Lockdown was associated with decrease in the number of cases (p&lt;0.01), increase in the time since injury to reception (p&lt;0.040), a rise in the share of referred admission (p&lt;0.040), time since reception at KGMU, time to definitive care (p&lt;0.001), high energy falls (p&lt;0.001), injuries at home (p&lt;0.001), higher ISS (p&lt;0.001), non operative treatment (p=0.038) and greater use of ambulance (p=0.003). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Lockdown resulted in a significant change in the causation and management of injury, significant delays in timeliness of care, reduction in the volume of admissions, an increase in injury severity and share of referral admissions.</p> Abhinav Bharat Vikas Verma Syed Faisal Afaque Archana Raikwar Suresh Chand Ajai Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 374 380 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.010 Awareness about pictorial warnings on tobacco products and its impact on tobacco consumers in coastal Karnataka <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tobacco use is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cancer. India revised the pictorial warnings on all tobacco products in 2018, but its impact on tobacco consumers after the revision is less studied. <strong>Aim and Objective: </strong>To assess the awareness of the revised pictorial warnings on tobacco products and the impact of it on tobacco consumers in a coastal town. <strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1<sup>st</sup> to 31<sup>st </sup>March 2021 among 185 adult tobacco consumers in a coastal town in Karnataka after obtaining ethical clearance and informed consent. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16.0 by descriptive statistics, Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression analysis. <strong>Results: </strong>Majority (95.7%) were males and 96.2% had seen the pictorial warning on the tobacco products. The commonly consumed tobacco products were panmasala (44.9%), gutka (38.9%), cigarette (31.4%) and bidi (15.1%). The mean age of initiation of consuming tobacco products was 24.8 years and mean duration of the habit was 17 years. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>A majority (96.2%) have seen the pictorial warnings on the tobacco products and significant predictors for reducing tobacco consumption were those who inferred the pictorial warnings as tobacco is injurious to health and cancerous.</p> Naveenkumar Gangadhar Havale Prashant Mohan Naik Hemagiri Kalappa Malatesh Undi Manjula Naik Shyamsundar Shreedhar Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 381 387 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.011 Epidemiological and clinical profile of Laboratory confirmed cases of COVID 19 admitted in Tertiary care Hospital Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir <p><strong>Background:</strong> Three or more waves of COVID 19 pandemic have hit the different parts of world including India very hard, taking toll on the lives of people both in terms of morbidity and mortality. Keeping this in mind, the present study was conducted with an aim to determine the socio-demographic and clinical profile of laboratory confirmed COVID 19 cases and to determine their association with oxygen requirement and outcome of disease at the time of discharge. <strong>Methods:</strong> The present cross-sectional study was conducted on lab confirmed COVID 19 cases admitted in tertiary care hospital in Jammu from June-July 2021.Data was collected using convenient sampling method. The self-designed questionnaire used for data collection obtained information regarding socio-demographic characteristics of patients as well as clinical features of the disease. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of total 161 patients studied, 60.8% were males and 39.2% were females. Mean age was 51.2 ± 17.5 years. Comorbid conditions were present in 37.8% patients, with hypertension being the most common ( 36%). Cough, Fever, breathlessness and myalgia were the main presenting symptoms (90%, 81%, 57.7% and 56% respectively). The variables which were found to have statistically significant association with oxygen requirement and the outcome of disease at the time of discharge were age, gender and presence of co-morbidity (p &lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Advancing age, male gender and presence of underlying co-morbidity were found to be significant risk factors for the requirement of oxygen and poor outcome of the disease.</p> Asheeb Sultan Rashmi Kumari Rajiv Kumar Gupta Bhavna Langer Tasneef Zargar Mehak Taban Mir Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 388 392 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.012 Prevalence of the Non-Communicable disease triad in hilly state of Uttarakhand: Evidences from National Family Health Surveys <p>India is facing epidemiological transition towards non communicable diseases and morbidities due to NCD triad of obesity, hypertension and diabetes. The risk factors contributing to chronic disease and NCD triad are lifestyle changes, poor dietary habits, lack of physical activity, tobacco/alcohol consumption. These risk factors are however modifiable and preventable. This article reviews secondary data of NFHS-4 and NFHS-5 to analyse trends of obesity, hypertension and diabetes among urban and rural population of Uttarakhand from 2015 to 2021.</p> Radhika Rana Om Prakash Bera Lalita Kumari Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 393 397 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.013 Effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the well-being and training of medical interns: an experience from a university of Eastern India <p><strong>Background: </strong>COVID-19 pandemic changed routines, with social distancing, quarantines, online classes, negatively affecting the mental health of the medical fraternity.<strong>Objectives:</strong> To assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the mental well-being and training and identify stressors experienced by medical-interns.<strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study among 150 interns, from 1<sup>st</sup> June- 30<sup>th</sup> September 2021, using Google form with 3sections-demographics, stressors experienced during the pandemic and WHO well-being index; data analyzed using EPI INFO software en-US version7.2.3.1.<strong>Results:</strong> of the 150 interns, 138 responded. Mean-age was 25.19 ± 1.62SD years; 60.8% were males, 56.5% were hostellers,30% suffered from COVID-19. 78.9% stated “lack of supervision during postings”, 73.9%“postponement of NEET PG” and 60.8%“lack of learning opportunities” as reasons of stress. 65.2% had a good “WHO well-being index”. Their COVID-19 infectivity status had a statistically significant (p=0.004) association with WHO well being index. “Lack of learning opportunities”(p=0.02), “fear of contracting COVID-19”(p=0.03) &amp; “limited time for PG preparation(p=0.01) were associated with their well-being.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>COVID-19 was associated with stress and poor mental health among the interns. Fear of disease, lack of regular duties and postponement of PG exams were factors leading to stress. Lack of learning opportunities, fear of contracting the virus were associated with poorer mental well-being.</p> Smriti Madhusikta Ipsa Mohapatra Subodh Panoria Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 398 401 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.014 A Randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of group-based Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) program on glycemic control and self-care activities among type-2 diabetics in South-East Delhi <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: India has the second-largest population of diabetes globally. The long-term complications due to poor glycemic control are concerning. Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) is a fundamental component in managing diabetes better. <strong>Objectives</strong>: This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of group-based DSME in achieving glycemic control and improving self-care practices among people with type-2 diabetes as against the usual care. <strong>Methods</strong>: A non-blinded parallel-arm RCT among adults (? 30 years) diagnosed with Type-2 DM. Written informed consent was taken from each patient before enrollment. The sample size is estimated to be 85 in each arm according to the formula for equivalence design for an RCT. Randomization was done using a computer-generated random number table. The control arm received usual care, while the intervention group received group-based DSME in addition to usual care. At the end of 6 months, the change in glycemic control and self-care activity scores were compared between the two arms. <strong>Results</strong>: A total of 139 individuals (intervention =69; control =70) were analyzed. The proportion of females (62.1%) was higher than males (37.9%). There was no statistically significant difference at baseline. At end line, HbA1c showed a reduction from 9.3% to 6.9% in the intervention arm (P&lt;0.001), which was greater than that in the control arm (p=0.017). All the self-care components showed a statistically significant improvement, except the medication score. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Group-based DSME effectively increases self-care practices among people with diabetes, resulting in better glycemic control.</p> Farishta Hannah D Singh Farzana Islam Aqsa Shaikh Rambha Pathak Sunil Kohli Varun Kashyap Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 402 407 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.015 Anaemia and Iron studies among women of reproductive age group: A Cross-sectional survey of a Large Cantonment in Western Maharashtra <p><strong>Background: </strong>Anaemia remains a major cause of concern among the women of reproductive age in our country. However, there is a wide variation amongst different socio-economic strata. <strong>Aim &amp; Objectives:</strong> This study was conducted among women of reproductive age for prevalence of anaemia and its association with certain socio-clinical variables in cantonment. <strong>Methods: </strong>It was a cross-sectional study. The information regarding socio-demographic variables, anthropometric measurements and clinical parameters were taken. Hemogram and iron profile was done by collecting venous blood from the participants. <strong>Results: </strong>Data was analyzed for 722 participants. Out of these 140, mild, moderate and severe anaemia was seen in 57, 77, 06 respectively. The major factors associated with anaemia were heavy menstruation and higher parity. Amongst these 140, iron deficiency anaemia was diagnosed in 135 .Among the 28 pregnant women, eight were anaemic (28.6: 95% CI 19.1-63.9)<strong>.Conclusion: </strong>The results of our study showed lower prevalence of anaemia than national level and majority of these were iron deficiency anaemia, which is amenable to prevention and treatment.</p> Swati Bajaj Achuth Kolar Shankar Nitin Bajaj Arun Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 408 412 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.016 Assessment of Occupational Stress among High School Teachers of Ahmedabad City, India <p><strong>Background</strong>: Apart from teaching, school teachers are involved in much of the school related work which may eventually affect their psychological well being. It is important to know the psychological impacts of such work related stress among school teachers. <strong>Objectives</strong>: To find out the prevalence of variables of the occupation stress among high school teachers using scale; To find out association between the selected personal variables with different component of occupational stress as defined in The School Teachers Job Stressor Scale-STJSS; <strong>Methods</strong>: STJSS was used as a tool for data collection. The sample size was calculated and the data were analyses for components of occupational stress (Anxiety, Depression, Lack of sleep, loss of appetite and other issues like additional workload, exhaustion, and support from peers) by selecting 36 school teachers from each zone. Statistical analysis was done using proportions, Kurtosis-Skewness and Chi-square test. .<strong>Results</strong>: Among a total of 218 school teachers, Male teachers had significantly higher proportions of anxiety (72.72%) and depression (76.66%) than female counterparts. On the other hand, female teachers (38.88%) were more likely to feel “additional work-load” than the males (21.09%). Depression was more common in overweight (18.51%) and obese (23.07%) participants.<strong>Conclusion</strong>: Demographic variables like age and gender had significant associations with occupational stressors among the school teachers. The need of psychological improvements among school teachers should be the area of focus including school health.</p> Donald Shailendra Christian Hardik Jashubhai Sutariya Khushboo Ashish Kagathra Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 413 417 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.017 Correlation of Human Height with Hand Dimensions: A Study among Medical students <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anthropometry is widely used for Identification of an individual. Height is one of the most important parameters of anthropometry. It is strongly correlated with the individual’s hand dimensions and if either of the measurements are known, the other can be calculated. <strong>Aim and Objective:</strong> To know correlation between the hand dimensions and Height of an individual and to apply the regression line of height on hand dimension of the person. <strong>Methods and Material:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among the medical students. Anthropometric indices were recorded after obtaining written consent and institutional approval using standard equipments. Linear regression and Pearson coefficient were calculated to study the correlation and arrive at the equation to calculate Height from Hand length. <strong>Results:</strong> Age of the study participants who consented for study (150) ranged between 18-24 years. Mean height was 165.91 cm. Mean right hand length was 17.71 cm and 17.69 cm on left hand. Mean hand width was 7.79 cm on right side and 7.56 cm on left side. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between height and the hand dimensions. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> There was a statistically significant positive correlation between hand dimensions and height. Forensic investigation, body identification and triage can be facilitated through calculating Height from hand dimensions when only mutilated body remains are received during disasters.</p> Revanth A Kumar Pratishtha Potdar Ranjana Singh Kamlesh Kumar Shukla Yogesh Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 418 421 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.018 Comparative Effects of Dynamic Stretching and Ice Bag Application On the Physical Performance in Recreational Basketball Players: A Randomized Crossover Study <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Researchers found that cryotherapy at the ankle joint heightened adjacent muscle activity and reflex amplitude, which facilitated greater force production at the ankle complex. Furthermore, cryotherapy appears to increase musculoarticular stiffness, which has been associated with heightened muscular performance at a joint. <strong>Aim and objective: </strong>the aim of the study is to examine the influence of dynamic stretching and IBA technique on the physical performance. <strong>Methodology:</strong> Total 20 healthy male basketball athletes encompassing two groups participated in the current study. The study consisted of two groups, Group A (ice bag application) and Group B (dynamic stretching). Cold compress was applied over the anterior thigh, posterior thigh, and calf. Subjects were assigned to Group A, and Group B, using Convenience sampling method. Each candidate performed the 5 minutes of jogging before taking intervention. All subjects performed three functional performance tests: Vertical Jump Test, Agility T-test &amp; 20-meter sprint. Each participant attended an orientation session to become familiar with the testing procedures. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups and exposed to a crossover study design. The experiment was performed on two separate occasions whereby one group received the dynamic stretching in the first session, while the other group uses the cryotherapy first. After 48 hours, (cooling session) on the next occasion, the groups were changed and the second group receives the cryotherapy, while the first group performs dynamic stretching. On both occasions, the dynamic stretching and cryotherapy interventions were the same. Between the sessions, the subjects will not allow to participate in any kind of vigorous physical activity. <strong>Results:</strong> The present study showed an increase in performance of recreational Basketball players by the combination of 5 minutes of warm up plus 6 min of dynamic stretching on the vertical jump height and 20-meter sprint.</p> Ajit Kumar Nishank Verma Moazzam Hussain Khan Sudip Bhattacharya Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 422 427 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.019 Progressive Trends of Childhood Immunization in Rajasthan: A study based on the NFHS database <p>Any public health program's efficacy may be evaluated solely based on the available statistics. A program's ability to be tracked relies heavily on data. There are several systems in place in India for gathering data on the health of individual states and the country as a whole. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is one of these mechanisms. Children's vaccination status is one of the many data points collected by the National Health Interview Study (NFIS), a representative sample survey. NFHS is commonly used to evaluate and monitor the progress of any health program in the country, therefore, to sum it up: According to Rajasthan's NFHS-4 and NFHS-5 reports, there has been a significant increase in the state's coverage status. Despite the difficulties and the closure of the corona, this research will investigate the data that has demonstrated extraordinary rises and the causes that have made it possible or the huge efforts by the state government.</p> Nirmala Peter Lokesh Sharma Jai Kishan Tondon Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 428 430 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.020 Respiratory health of the small scale dairy workers of urban Bhubaneswar, Odisha <p><strong>Background: </strong>Human in close inhabitation with the cattle due to unventilated or inadequately ventilated establishments or inadequate living space, is always at a risk of sustaining infection from the cattle through different modes of disease transmission. This study hints at the increased incidences in respiratory infections among dairy workers in unorganized and small scale dairy farms due to amendable unhygienic practices. <strong>Methods: </strong>This survey was part of a larger study, conducted after ethics approval. Number of households involved in dairy work surveyed were 60. From every house, two members actively involved in dairy work were chosen and total respondents were 120. The study tool was a semi structured, mixed questionnaire. <strong>Results: </strong>67.5% dairy workers self-reported occurrence of respiratory symptoms which included the complaints like cough,breathing difficulty on exertion. None of the dairy workers were vaccinated against any milk borne disease.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>The housing, civic amenities accessed by them and their awareness are probably the main reasons for wide variety of self perpetuated practices and deviations of standard requirement.Use of protective gear (gloves,caps,masks) should be strictly emphasized and popularized.</p> Snigdha Singh Sonali Kar Alpana Mishra Dipti Pattnaik Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 431 434 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.021 A qualitative analysis of perspectives of district level frontline managers in Karnataka during first wave of COVID 19 <p>With the emergence of pandemic, health sector has been facing innumerable challenges right from prevention to management of COVID-19. This study attempts to understand these factors from a local perspective that will help in better planning and management of situation for the future. Karnataka was one of the 8 states selected as part of a multisectoral qualitative study. Perspectives of frontline managers regarding the management of COVID 19 pandemic situation were taken by in depth interviews. Deductive thematic analysis from the audio recordings and transcripts showed public apprehensions, gaps in decentralized approach and specific guidelines, monitoring difficulties and workforce related issues as factors of concern.</p> Sunhitha Velamala Nugehally Raju Ramesh Masthi Mohammad Waseem Faraz Ansari Rashmi Kundapur Sumit Aggarwal Huluvadi Shivalingaiah Anwith Anusha Rashmi Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 435 438 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.022 The unspoken plight of married adolescent girls in rural Tamil Nadu: Narrative summary on unmet sexual and reproductive health needs and barriers <p><strong>Background</strong>: Young women who marry as adolescents face a number of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. This study aimed to identify unmet SRH needs of adolescent girls and barriers they face in achieving them in rural Tamilnadu, India. <strong>Methodology</strong>: This qualitative study used narratives to understand participants and their immediate family’s SRH needs and barriers based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Totally, 14 in-depth interviews with young women and 14 focus group discussions with family members were conducted. The collected data were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim and analysed by content analysis method. <strong>Results</strong>: Unmet SRH needs, primarily constituted of family planning methods, menstrual hygiene, sexual health, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases STD awareness. Barriers to healthcare access are societal stigma, taboos, intimate partner violence, and early marriage. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: The topic of family planning was taboo, menstruation as a negative influence on their daily activities, engaging in sexual activities was to provide sexual pleasure to their partners, to comply with their partners' wishes when under the influence of alcohol, and to produce children and lack of education regarding obtaining consent for sexual activity. We can conclude that it is important to understand how the SRH needs of adolescent girls can be met and need better-suited policies and services.</p> Shreeya Rasweth Nisha B Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 439 443 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.023 How does Nursing Students Knowledge and Attitude correlate in relation to Rabies? An institutional based Cross-Sectional study in Assam <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral disease. Every year, Rabies causes 18 000-20 000 deaths in India and dogs are responsible for 99 % of all human deaths.<strong>Objectives</strong>: 1) To assess the knowledge and attitude about rabies among the nursing students.2) To assess whether there is any difference of knowledge and attitude about Rabies among different academic year of the nursing students.3) To assess whether there is any relation between scores of knowledge and attitude.<strong>Material &amp; Methods</strong>: A cross sectional study was conducted among 142 students of B.Sc. Nursing College, Dibrugarh, Assam in January 2022 using Google form containing pre designed structured closed ended questionnaire by convenience sampling. Knowledge and attitude was assessed by a scoring system. Results were expressed in proportion, percentage, mean, standard deviation. ANOVA and Spearman”s correlation was applied. <strong>Results</strong>: Mean knowledge &amp; attitude score was 15.7±3.6 and 23.6±2.6.Majority (82.4%) of the students had good knowledge about rabies.Almost all (97.9 %) students had positive attitude towards rabies. There was no significant difference between knowledge score and attitude score among different academic year of the students. Knowledge was positively correlated with attitude of the students.<strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study revealed good knowledge and positive attitude regarding rabies among the students.</p> Chetanjit Baruah Sadhna Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 444 447 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.024 Why do we need Lifestyle Medicine? <p>“<em>While the search for the magic bullets continues, other studies are revealing that the environment in which the individuals’ lives and his manner of living are of great importance in determining his susceptibility to the diseases of modern times</em>.”</p> <p><strong><em>Rene Dubos</em></strong></p> <p><em>(Mirage of Health-Utopias, Progress, and Biological change, 1959)(1)</em></p> <p>This quote by one of the greatest microbiologist of 20<sup>th</sup> century is even more relevant today where Non-communicable diseases have taken the center stage in the world as well as in India. The impact of NCD’s in India is quite alarming. NCD’s account for 60%of all deaths and 53% of disease burden, over 20% of the population in India has at least one chronic disease, NCD’s are estimated to cost India 62 million during the period 2012 – 2030.(2)</p> <p>Most of these NCD’s are related to some common risk factors like lack of physical activity, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, unhealthy diet, stressful lifestyle, lack of adequate sleep. That is the reason NCD’s are now being called as lifestyle diseases and interestingly, most of the NCD’s are preventable (and some of the important ones also reversible in early stages) through lifestyle approaches also being called as <strong>‘Lifestyle Medicine’.</strong></p> Rahul Bansal Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 327 329 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.001 Developing public health capacities of Frontline Public Health Workforce in Uttarakhand <p>Recent COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of increase in the ability of public health workforce to detect and respond to the public health threats. For timely implementation of an adequate response and mitigation measure, the standardized and sustainable capacity building programme for frontline public health workforce is the need of hour. National Center for Disease Control (NCDC), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, in partnership with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), developed a three-month in-service Basic Epidemiology Training programme. This is a tailor-made programme for frontline public health workforce to strengthen epidemiological skills. This training was a practical interactive approach to field epidemiology for three months on the job training for frontline public health workforce that addressed the critical skills needed to conduct surveillance effectively at the local level while focusing on improving disease detection, reporting and feedback. The training also demonstrated the role of learning model in form of interaction between the mentor and the mentees. The importance of handhold support given by the mentors to the mentees in quality outbreak investigations and documentation.</p> Pankaj Singh Amrita Gupta Akhilesh Tripathi Meera Dhuria Pradeep Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 34 3 448 450 10.47203/IJCH.2022.v34i03.025