Indian Journal of Community Health https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH <p>The Journal provides an avenue to medical scientists for publication of original research work so as to facilitate use of research for public health action. The scope of the Journal is broad. Original research articles are invited on public health, primary health care, epidemiology, health administration, health systems, health economics, health promotion, public health nutrition, communicable and non-communicable diseases, maternal and child health, occupational and environmental health, social and preventive medicine which have potential to promote evidence-based public health action. The Journal also include editorial, commentaries, perspectives, state of the art reviews, research briefs, policy and practice, reports from the field, public health classics, letters to the editor and book reviews.</p> en-US chiefeditor@iapsmupuk.org (Chief Editor) chiefeditor@iapsmupuk.org (Chief Editor) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Impact of Training on Awareness of COVID-19 among The Health Care Workers in A Tertiary Care Hospital of Dehradun https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2273 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Novel Corona virus infection (Covid-19) was declared global pandemic by WHO infecting more than 118,000 cases in 114 countries and the number of deaths counting to 4291. WHO recommends the only strategy to limit the spread of Corona virus is only by prevention itself. <strong>Aim and Objective</strong>: To assess the awareness among Health Care Workers on covid-19 infection. To compare the level of knowledge among the study participants and To assess the impact of training about the knowledge on covid-19 control. <strong>Material and methods</strong>: The study was conducted by the Research team of Community Medicine Department, SGRRIM&amp;HS, Dehradun between 1st October to 31st December 2020. Self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and awareness among health care workers. Data collected and analysed using SPSS software for different parameters. <strong>Result</strong>: A total of 421 health care workers participated in the present study. Majority of the study participants were female with 346 (82.2%) while 75 (17.8%) of them were male. Independent t-test was used to compare pre and post test values with Socio-demographic profile, designation, and work place of the respondents. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Improvement in the knowledge and awareness among health care workers was observed post training.</p> Fouzia Naz, Puneet Ohri, Ashwani Sharma, B Sudha Spandana, Kajal Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2273 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of co-morbidities in COVID -19 infected patients https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2291 <p><strong>Background</strong>- During the COVID- 19 pandemic in the first wave, infected patients age was range from 4 weeks to 90 years and those who have more age and with comorbidities are more susceptible to develop serious illness and have high mortality rates. <strong>Objective</strong>-To study the association between survivor vs non survivor on the basis of demographic profile and high risk factors. <strong>Material &amp; methods</strong>: This study was done in the Government Medical College, Kannauj on the COVID-19 patients who were admitted in the isolation wards, from 1st September 2020 to December 31st 2020. <strong>Statistical Analysis</strong>- Analysis was done using SPSS- 23 trial version software. Results: case fatality rate was 2.7% in this study. Most common symptoms was cough (61.0%) and among these admitted patients the most common comorbidities was hypertension (26.7%), followed by diabetes (20.7%), and COPD (14.0%) respectively. Platelets (&lt; 0.02), post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) (&lt; 0.01) have significant role in survivability of COVID- 19 patients. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study concludes that those patients who were older in age and with comorbidity especially (hypertension, COPD, high PPBS, High platelets) have poorer prognosis as compare to those without.</p> Preeti Verma , Sachin Chaudhary, Samarjeet Kaur, Tanu Midha, Dinesh Singh Martolia Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2291 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Pattern regarding Diabetic Retinopathy among the patients of Diabetes Mellitus presenting to a Tertiary Health Care Center in Uttarakhand https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2260 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Diabetes Melltius (DM) is an established silent killer in the developed world and is slowly increasing the burden of morbidity in the developing nations as well. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening protocols are not standardized in the developing world and not available to many practioners. <strong>Methods:</strong> This is an observational analytical study aimed to assess the levels of knowledge, attitude and practice patterns regrading DR among the patients of DM in Uttarakhand. These were correlated with the educational status, socio-economic status, duration of DM, residence and gender. <strong>Results:</strong> Higher levels of knowledge which were statistically significant were observed as the socioeconomic status rose, with the increase in the duration of DM and with higher levels of educational status. A corresponding positive tone was also seen with respect to attitude and practice. However, the levels of knowledge did not correspond to the levels of practice. <strong>Conclusio</strong>n: Integration of the health services along with the educational system would be an advancing step in spreading awareness about the disease entity itself and its morbid consequences. This would create an environment of high awareness and screening protocols will be easily streamlined.</p> Renu Dhasmana, Ruchi Juyal, Hennaav Kaur Dhillon Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2260 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A study to evaluate pattern and purpose of smartphone usage and its dependence among medical students of government medical college in northern India https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2261 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Smartphone usage has become increasingly popular in recent decade. Though it’s of great utility in many aspects, excessive usage among youth has shown increased restlessness, careless lifestyles and greater susceptibility to stress. <strong>Aim &amp; Objective</strong>: To assess the pattern and purpose of smartphone usage and its dependence among medical students. <strong>Methods &amp; Material</strong>: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among 363 MBBS students of 1st, IInd and IIIrd professional year between October 2018 to December 2018 at a government medical college. A 20-item self-administrated questionnaire, focusing on purpose and pattern of use of smart phone and its dependence was filled by all the students. Data was collected, entered and analysed using SPSS Software. <strong>Result</strong>: Among 363 students, 53% participants were males and rest were females. 80% students were using smartphone for more than 2 years, while 60% were having daily usage of more than 3 hours. Significant association between severity of smartphone dependence and variables like MBBS professional year, daily phone call made and received, daily SMS received, daily WhatsApp message sent and received were observed. Dependence was mild in 8.8% of the students; Moderate in 72.2% while 19% were suffering from severe smartphone dependence. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Smart phone dependence is an established and emerging psychological issue which needs attention and intervention. It is of serious concern that all medical students were suffering from smartphone dependence with varying grades of severity. Increased awareness regarding the harmful effects of smartphone addiction is the need of hour.</p> Shiv Kumar Yadav, Nidhi Mimani Gupta, Asha Raj Piyush, Dheeraj Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2261 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Myths and misbelieves regarding COVID vaccines in India https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2252 <p><strong>Background</strong>: - COVID-19 is the most important public health problem of recent time. Many people require hospitalization after infection. COVID vaccination is the most effective way to prevent the disease. Due to extensive negative publicity through social media channels/platforms,significant number of individuals are not coming forward for vaccination. Therefore, study is needed to evaluate adverse effects associated with different vaccines available in India. <strong>Objectives</strong>: - To assess the adverse effects associated with COVID-19 vaccination and compare the side effect of two most commonly used COVID vaccines in India. <strong>Methods</strong>:- In the current report, a cross sectional study was conducted among beneficiaries of COVID-19 vaccines at the vaccination center of the LLRM Medical college, India. After institutional ethical clearance and informed consent, patients were asked about the symptoms they experienced after vaccination. A very simple random sampling approach was used to select beneficiaries. Information was collected on predesigned Google form and total 391 patients submitted the responses. <strong>Results</strong>:- Out of total respondents 77 % individuals reported one or more symptoms. Fever was reported to be most common problem (59.3%) followed by body ache (57.5%). Out of total beneficiaries, 68.3% experienced mild symptoms while 23% remain asymptomatic. Only few subjects reported moderate adverse effects (8.7%). None of the respondent reported severe and serious adverse effect. <strong>Conclusions</strong>:- Vaccine associated adverse effects were found less than 3 days and of mild variety in most of the beneficiaries. There was no difference in adverse effect profile of two commonly used vaccines in India. People must come forward for vaccination in mass without fearing of adverse effects of vaccines.</p> Abhishek Mishra, Tanveer Bano, Chhaya Mittal, Ganesh Singh, Niharika Verma, Arun Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2252 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of nutritional status of elderly population living at high altitude regions of India utilizing Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) methodology https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2083 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality amongst elderly population. There is lack of scientific evidence on the staus of malnutrition amongst elderly population residing at high altitude regions of Uttarakhand, India.</p> <p><strong>Background</strong>: Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality amongst elderly population. Lack of scientific evidence exists on the status of malnutrition amongst elderly population residing at high altitude regions of Uttarakhand, India. <strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in high altitude regions of District Nainital. A total of 980 elderly subjects were selected from 30 clusters identified using population proportionate to size sampling method<strong>. </strong>Nutritional status of the elderly population was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. Data was entered in MS Excel 2007 and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. <strong>Results:</strong> The results of MNA revealed that 14.3% of the elderly subjects were malnourished. High prevalence of malnutrition was found among subjects who were illiterate (74.5%), financially dependent (75.2%), belonged to low monthly income (43.3%) had poor appetite (71.6%) and chewing problems (63.1%); (p&lt;0.0001). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> High prevalence of malnutrition was present amongst the elderly population in India. There is a need for timely assessment of malnutrition for maintenance of nutritional status and prevention of chronic diseases.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in high altitude regions of District Nainital. A total of 980 elderly subjects were selected from 30 clusters identified using population proportionate to size sampling method<strong>. </strong>Nutritional status of the elderly population was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. Data was entered in MS Excel 2007 and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of MNA revealed that 14.3% of the elderly subjects were malnourished. High prevalence of malnutrition was found among subjects who were illiterate (74.5%), financially dependent (75.2%), belonged to low monthly income (43.3%) had poor appetite (71.6%) and chewing problems (63.1%); (p&lt;0.0001).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> High prevalence of malnutrition was present amongst the elderly population in India. There is a need for timely assessment of malnutrition for maintenance of nutritional status and prevention of chronic diseases.</p> Aakriti Gupta, Umesh Kapil, Ravi Belwal Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2083 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of needle stick injuries, its associated factors and awareness among nursing staff at tertiary care hospital of North India https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2232 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Needle Stick Injuries (NSIs) are defined as accidental skin penetrating injuries caused by needles. It is the single greatest occupational hazard to a medical personnel. In developing countries, needle stick injury is associated with the highest global prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. <strong>Aim &amp; Objectives:</strong> To estimate the prevalence of needle stick injuries, its associated risk factors and assess the awareness regarding needle stick injuries among nursing staff. <strong>Material &amp; Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among nursing staff who were working at a tertiary care hospital in Northern India during June 2019 to November 2019. The study commenced after taking prior approval from institutional ethics committee. A census method was used to include the participants. <strong>Results:</strong> Around 66.7% of the nursing staff was exposed to NSIs during their working hours at the hospital. There was significant association of needle stick injuries with place of working and education of nursing staff in multivariate binary logistic regression. About 26% of the nurses were unaware that recapping should be done or not for used needle, and 35% of staff nurses recapped the needle after the use. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Needle stick injuries can be prevented by continued education, effective training, providing better safety devices, a positive work environment.</p> Prem Prakash Bharti, Naresh Pal Singh, Prashant Kumar Bajpai, Vidya Rani, Pankaj Kumar Jain, Ayub Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2232 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) as a strong predictor of diabetes mellitus: A cross sectional study among urban population of Jhalawar, Rajasthan https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2263 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The patients with Type 2 diabetes Mellitus may often remain asymptomatic for a longer period of time. The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS), a simple screening tool for prediction of undiagnosed diabetes. <strong>Objective:</strong> Validation of IDRS with standard test for type 2 diabetes among urban population of Jhalawar, Rajasthan. <strong>Material and Methods:</strong> A Community based Cross-sectional study was carried out in urban field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar, Rajasthan. The study was conducted using a two-stage sampling design. A predesigned, pretested proforma and Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) sheet was used to collect data from the study participants. The IDRS is based on four parameters: age, family history of diabetes, waist circumference and physical inactivity. Data was collected using the World Health Organization stepwise approach to surveillance (STEPS). <strong>Results:</strong> Among 450 participants, 12.7% participants were in low risk, 59.1% were in moderate risk and 28.2% were in high risk of developing diabetes according to IDRS score. IDRS score of ?60 turned out to be the best cut point for identifying undiagnosed diabetes with sensitivity 92.3% and specificity 82.6%. Positive Predictive value and Negative Predictive value were 47.3% and 98.5% respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Association of IDRS was found significant with diabetes. IDRS score of ?60 turned out to be the best cut point for identifying undiagnosed diabetes. IDRS is found valid screening tool for early detection of Diabetes.</p> Mayank Jain, Vinod Kumar, Manish Jain, Kapil Garg, Ravi Shekhawat, Pankaj Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2263 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A follow up study of discharged COVID-19 patients admitted at tertiary care hospital of Ahmedabad city https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2278 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Though there is limited information on late sequelae of COVID-19, reports of persistent symptoms in persons who recovered from COVID-19 illness have emerged. The most frequently reported symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, cough. <strong>Objectives</strong>: 1.To identify the persistence or development of various symptoms among discharged COVID-19 patients 2.To study the outcome of COVID-19 infection after one month of discharge 3.To assess the difference in the quality of life pre and post COVID-19 status of study participants by using EuroQol Visual Analogue scale. <strong>Material &amp; Methods</strong>: A Longitudinal study was carried out among all discharged confirmed COVID-19 patients aged more than 18 years and above in 1st December 2020 to 31st December 2020. 50% of patients discharged in December 2020 were selected by simple random sampling method. Status of present symptoms at the time of discharge and after one month of discharge were taken through telephonic interview. <strong>Results</strong>: COVID-19patients had persistent symptoms like fatigue, cough, &amp; anosmia respectively at the time of discharge. 7 (4.6%) patients found dead at the time follow up after one month. According to EQ-VAS, 79 (52.3%) COVID-19 patients perceived improved quality of life at the time of follow up one month after discharge as compare to the time of discharge. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: There is significant improvement in quality of life seen among the patients at the time of follow up than at the time of discharge. At the time of follow up, 4.6% deaths observed and some patients had persistent symptoms like fatigue, dyspnea.</p> Mansi Patel, Hardika Khanpara, Arpit Prajapati, Parth Thakar Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2278 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Direct Benefit Transfer Scheme for Tuberculosis Patients – Performance Challenges observed by the Providers and Patients https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2242 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Government of India launched an Aadhar-linked Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme from 1st April, 2018. Under this scheme, all notified TB patients would receive Rs 500 per month (~US$7) throughout the course of their treatment for nutritional support. <strong>Aim and Objectives</strong>: To determine the challenges faced by the health providers and patients in the implementation of Direct Benefit Transfer scheme. <strong>Methods:</strong> This was a mixed method cross-sectional study conducted on all public and private TB patients notified during the year 2019 under RNTCP (now NTEP) in district Amritsar, Punjab. Quantitative data about the availability and validation of bank accounts was obtained from the Nikshay portal after having permission from the District TB Officer. Qualitative data was obtained from the focus group discussion and in-depth interviews with the involved staff members (17) and patients (20) registered in Tuberculin units of Amritsar. <strong>Results:</strong> From the Nikshay reports, it was observed that there was significant difference between the public and private sector and between rural and urban areas. Focus group discussion was done with the TB Health Visitor (TBHV) and Senior TB supervisors (STS) and asked about the hurdles they faced. Items were identified and tabulated. In-depth interviews were conducted on 20 patients, 10 each from public and private sector respectively. Data collected was transcribed and arranged as per the themes or questions and then the information was recorded under those sub-headings. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The major challenges observed by the providers were lack of support from the private sector, lack of awareness among people, technical issues and more work burden. Patients mostly mentioned about confidentiality issues, lack of awareness, social stigma of the disease, less amount and long and complex process.</p> Manisha Nagpal, Harjot Singh, Sarthak Chawla, Niharika Khunger, Naresh Chawla, Priyanka Devgun Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2242 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Geospatial Epidemiology of chicken-pox disease in India between 2015-2021: A GIS based analysis https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2246 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In this paper, we introduce geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool to study trends in disease spread in time and space. Based on data gathered by the integrated disease surveillance programme (IDSP), we can see where outbreaks of Chickenpox have occurred. <strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study is to assess the trends in chickenpox diseases in India between January 2015 and April 2021 using GIS maps. <strong>Methods:</strong> For the collection of secondary data relating to chickenpox, a free app called collect 5 was used for collecting data weekly from the IDSP website and then storing them in an online server. In this project, variables that needed to be processed with QGIS were combined with table attributes of many shapefiles of India and presented as maps. <strong>Results:</strong> Between Jan 2015 and May 2021, 1269 chickenpox outbreaks (27,257 cases) have been recorded. Thirty-one deaths have been confirmed, with most occurring in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Nineteen states did not report any deaths. According to the seasonally adjusted trend, the number of cases was highest during the months of January and March. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> In summary, geographic information systems have become an invaluable tool for mapping the hotspots of acute epidemics and planning public health interventions to prevent the spread of these diseases.</p> Akshay Minhas, Mitasha Singh, Nerella Satya Narayana Prasad, Ashok Bhardwaj Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2246 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Sexuality Education- Understanding adolescents’ perspective https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2270 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Adolescence is very dynamic phase in life and if child is not able to cope up with the changes then the effects on health are lifelong. Evidence supporting role of holistic/ comprehensive sexuality education empowering children in this coping process is present. But still the controversies exists in all countries about either acceptance, content or delivery of the sexuality education. To make curriculum more acceptable, engaging and effective, it is very important to take into consideration adolescent’s perspective. In present study, we tried to understand felt need of adolescents about sexuality education. <strong>Objective</strong>: To understand need for sexuality education. <strong>Methods</strong>: The methods used were question box, self-administered questionnaire, and name the organs in blank human figure activity all in different set of students. <strong>Results</strong>: 48% questions were to seek scientific information but extent was up to enquiring about sex toys.12% about emotional changes, 11% about cultural norms,9% about romantic relationship and 6% to clear myths. The basic knowledge about human body, pubertal changes was poor, more so in girls. The attitude towards pubertal changes was mostly negative in girls, curious in boys. The inhibition in mentioning reproductive system organs was significant in both, indicating attitude. 98% were willing to have correct knowledge about the pubertal changes and effects on life. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The comprehensive sexuality education is unmet need in India. Taking into consideration perspective of adolescents, it should contain scientific knowledge and other relevant topics.</p> Swati Shiradkar, Swati Mahajan Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2270 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Professional Quality of Life and Mental Health among Doctors in Tamil Nadu during COVID19 Pandemic https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2287 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The pandemic COVID19, a serious global threat has led to elevated levels of pressure on medical professionals. The research shows that occupational stressors has been significantly associated with the pandemic.<strong>Objective</strong>: To estimate the professional quality of life of doctors in Tamil Nadu and their mental health during the COVID19 pandemic. <strong>Settings andDesign</strong>: Cross-sectional study in Tamil Nadu, South India. <strong>Method</strong>: Among 318 doctors from both private and government sectors in Tamil Nadu, South India during April 9th - May 10th 2021, the study was conducted to estimate the professional quality of life [Compassion Satisfaction (CS), Secondary Traumatization (ST) and burnout] using ProQOL-5 scale. Depression and Anxiety were estimated using PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scales respectively. <strong>Statistical analysis used</strong>: Association between the variables was found using Chi-square test. <strong>Results</strong>: Among the 318 respondents (170 males and 148 females), CS and ST levels were high in 77(24.2%), and 10(3.1%) respondents respectively. Severe depression and anxiety were among 36(11.3%) and 109(34.3%) respectively. Statistically significant association was found for Burnout (?2=55.671; OR=15.135; 95% CI=6.361-36.013 and ?2=57.518; OR=18.014; 95% CI=7.054-46.007) and ST (?2=56.701; OR=15.432; 95% CI=6.486-36.717 and ?2=26.281; OR=4.558; 95% CI=2.476-8.390) with both depression and anxiety (p&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Doctors of Tamil Nadu, South India are challenged with adverse mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic with a significant association between the quality of life at work and psychological distress.</p> M C Vasantha Mallika, A R Glannie, Pretty Venis Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2287 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS before and after receiving antiretroviral therapy https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2294 <p><strong>Background</strong>- HIV/AIDS is a chronic illness. Besides having serious morbidities, opportunistic infections, it also adversely affects quality of life of People Living with HIV/AIDS (QOL- PLHIV). Early and prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) might improve quality of life of PLHIV in various domains like psychological, physical, environment level of independence, social relationship and spirituality/religion/personal beliefs. <strong>Material and methods</strong>- The study was conducted at a medical institute of North India. Patients attending ART centre of the institute for the treatment of HIV/AIDS were interviewed on WHOQOL-HIV questionnaire. <strong>Aim and objectives</strong>- To assess and compare quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS at initiation and after 6 months of receiving antiretroviral therapy. <strong>Result</strong>- QOL-PLHIV was improved in various domains when assessed after six months of receiving ART. For physical domain mean score increased from 12.83 to 13.85, for psychological domain from 12.54 to 14.31, for level of independence from 12.95 to 13.21, for social relationship from 12.46 to 14.15, for environment domain from 11.98 to 13.15 and for spirituality/religion/personal belief mean score increased from 11.41 to 11.96. Respective standard deviation was decreased when compared from before initiation of ART to six months after receiving ART. <strong>Conclusion</strong> – Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS was improved significantly after receiving ART.</p> Peeyush Kariwala, Sunil Dutt Kandpal, Arvind Kumar Singh, Anurag Pathak, Sumeet Dixit Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2294 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Translation and Validation of Marathi Version of Oral Health Impact Profile?14, a Measure of Oral Health?Related Quality of Life https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2289 <p style="margin: 0cm; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif;">Background: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif;">A quality of life (QoL) assessment tool needs to be translated and validated in the language of the participants to whom it is administered. Therefore, the oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) scale, developed originally in English, has been translated into different languages like Hindi, Gujrati, etc. The Marathi version of OHIP-14 will be useful to assess in regions where the Marathi language is prominently spoken. Thus, the present study was carried out to translate and validate the Marathi version of the OHIP-14 instrument to measure the oral health-related quality of life. <strong><span style="font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif;">Aims &amp; Objectives: </span></strong>To translate and validate the English Version of the OHIP-14 instrument in the Marathi Language. <strong><span style="font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif;">Materials and Methods: </span></strong>This was a descriptive cross-sectional study in which 128 participants were selected through a convenient sampling method. The English version of the OHIP-14 was translated using the forward-backward translation technique, and participants were given English and the Marathi versions of the OHIP-14 questionnaire. The filled questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis. <strong><span style="font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif;">Result: </span></strong> The difference in mean scores was not statistically significant(p=0.828). Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was 0.999, suggesting that the translated Marathi version is highly correlated with the original English version. <strong><span style="font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif;">Conclusion: </span></strong>The Marathi version of OHIP-14 is a valid, and reliable instrument for assessing QoL among the population who speak Marathi.</span></p> Pradyumna Doibale, Suryakant Deogade, Arun Khalikar, Sattyam Wankhede, Archit Kapadia, Vinay Dutta Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2289 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Clinico-epidemiological study of safe and unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2282 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) remains one of the most commonest chronic infectious diseases worldwide particularly in children and adolescents. India has been classified as the high prevalence country with national prevalence of 4%. Knowledge of differential regional prevalence of risk factors is required for adequate health education of masses and for customised preventive and control measures in respective areas. <strong>Aims</strong>: To study the clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients with CSOM. Methods: The study was carried out in the department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU, Aligarh from November, 2017 to December, 2019. Patients with CSOM attending the otorhinolaryngology OPD and those admitted in IPD were included in the study. <strong>Results</strong>: A total 200 cases of chronic suppurative otitis media including both safe (mucosal) and unsafe (squamous) type were studied. The mean age of participants was 22.8 ± 15.18 years. Of the total participants, 111 (55.5%, 95% CI 48.6 to 62.2) were males, 89 (44.5%, 95% CI 37.8 to 51.4) were females and the majority (60.5%, 95% CI 53.6 to 67) of them were from rural background. Around one-fourth of the patients were illiterate (23%, 95% CI 17.7 to 29.3) and the patients mostly belonged to lower side (lower middle, upper lower and lower) of the spectrum of Kuppuswamy socioeconomic classification. The distribution of age-group, gender and laterality (side of involvement) was similar (P&gt;0.05) in both safe and unsafe type. Overall, 151(75.5%, 95% CI 69.9 to 80.9) patients were found to have conductive hearing loss, 30 (15%, 95% CI 10.7 to 20.6) with mixed and 19 (9.5%, 95% CI 6.2 to 14.4) did not have any hearing loss at presentation. The distribution of patients with regards to hearing loss was found to be similar in both safe and unsafe groups (P = 0.311). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: CSOM particularly afflicts younger age populations from rural background with poor socioeconomic status. Appropriate timely interventions in the form of health promotion, education about the risk factors and improvement in the living conditions will result in decrease in incidence and prevalence of the disease. Moreover, knowledge of symptoms and signs of the disease is likely to result in early seeking of healthcare and hence better treatment outcomes and prevention of complications.</p> Najam Khalique, Zeeshan Ahmad, Kamlesh Chandra, Md Yasir Zubair, Md Anas Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2282 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Stunting and its determinants among adolescents in four schools of Bangalore city: Height for age- a vital metric for nutritional assessment https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2279 <p><strong>Background:</strong> National Family Health Surveys in India have not included nutritional status of the crucial age group of 10-14 years, when pubertal growth spurt typically occurs. BMI-for-age is commonly used to assess adolescent nutritional status which may misclassify stunted adolescents as normal or overweight. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To estimate prevalence and determinants of stunting among adolescents (10 to 19 years) in Bangalore city and to estimate the proportion of adolescents who are stunted, but otherwise assessed as normal or overweight using BMI-for-age. <strong>Methods:</strong> Cross sectional study conducted in four schools of Bangalore city using a self-administered questionnaire to capture socio-demographic details, dietary patterns and physical activity. WHO Anthroplus software was used to classify nutritional status based on height-for-age and BMI-for-age. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to calculate adjusted odds ratios of independent co-variates associated with stunting. <strong>Results: </strong>Overall prevalence of stunting was 14% (95%CI:11.5-16.5%); 14.3% among females (95%CI:10.7-17.9%) and 13.6% among males (95%CI: 10.2-17.0%). Determinants of stunting were late adolescence [AOR=1.90(1.24-2.90),<em>P</em>=0.03], lower socio-economic class [AOR=2.75(1.39-5.41),<em>P</em>=0.03] and not taking weekly iron and folic acid supplements [AOR=2.78(1.48-5.21),<em>P</em>=0.001] Four of every five stunted children (81%) were classified as normal/ overweight/ obese using BMI-for-age.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>Stunting is a problem among urban adolescents in Bangalore. Height-for-age is a vital metric for assessing nutritional status of adolescents along with other metrics. We recommend strengthening of weekly iron and folic acid supplementation in schools and culturally specific targeted nutritional interventions for adolescents from economically weaker sections of society using a multi-sectoral and participatory approach.</p> Avita Rose Johnson, Bhavya Balasubramanya, Sulekha Thimmaiah Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2279 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of depression and health related quality of life among patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension attending a secondary care hospital in district Faridabad, Haryana https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2227 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) have significant effect on the mental health of the patient. and. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression, and the quality of life among patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension who attended a secondary care hospital. <strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 618 patients who had DM and/or HT. PHQ-9 and WHO-BREF QOL questionnaire were administered to assess depression and health related quality of life respectively. <strong>Results</strong>: More than 2/3rd of patients had depression. Among those who had depression, nearly half (46%) had moderate depression and 2.1% had severe depression. The proportion of severely depressed patients was higher in diabetes mellitus group compared to the hypertension group. Patients that were depressed had poorer quality of life compared to non-depressed, and the difference was statistically significant. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension may be screened for depression and managed accordingly.</p> Bhushan Kamble, Rama Shankar Rath, Puneet Misra, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Shashi Kant Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2227 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Factors of Absenteeism Among Students Attending Community Medicine Department https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2290 <p><strong>Context</strong>: Frequent absence from classes may lead to improper learning and poor academic performance. Absenteeism can make teaching - learning environment unwelcoming and impacting those also who attend classes regularly. <strong>Aims &amp; Objectives</strong>: To explore factors responsible for absenteeism among second professional students attending Community Medicine Department and to formulate recommendations to deal with absenteeism. <strong>Material and Methods </strong>: A Cross sectional study was conducted among 132 second professional medical undergraduate students attending Community Medicine Department in a teaching hospital. A self-designed pre validated questionnaire comprising of various sections related to teaching –learning factors was used to explore factors responsible for student absenteeism. Faculty perception regarding student absenteeism and recommendations formulated to deal with it were recorded separately. <strong>Data analysis</strong>: Data was entered in MS Excel and Chi Square test was used for analysis. <strong>Results: </strong>Among 132 study participants, majority of the participants (62.1%) were females who were residing in hostels. Highest percentage of absenteeism (40.1%) was during examination time. Extracurricular activities like sports/gym, browsing net and parties were significantly (p&lt;0.001) associated with absenteeism. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Absenteeism can adversely affect academic performance and low attendance can demotivate teachers also to teach with keen interest.</p> Harshdeep Joshi, Shamim Monga, Sunil Raina Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2290 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS): An effective tool to screen undiagnosed diabetes https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2316 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Diabetes is an insidious public health problem. India has the second largest number of adults living with diabetes worldwide (77 million). Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) is a simple, cost-effective and feasible tool for mass screening programme at community level. <strong>Aim &amp; Objective</strong>: To assess diabetes risk in adults aged 30 years and above and to identify high risk subjects for screening undiagnosed diabetes in an urban population of Meerut. <strong>Settings and Design</strong>: Community based cross-sectional study. <strong>Methods and Material</strong>: All adults who were ?30 years of age and non-diabetic were interviewed using pre-designed, pre-tested questionnaire for their socio-demographic profile and lifestyle. Fasting Blood glucose of all study subjects were done to screen undiagnosed diabetics. Statistical analysis used: Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Epi Info TM 7.2.3.1 was used. Pearson’s Chi Square were applied. <strong>Results</strong>: 33.4% were found to have high diabetes risk. Risk of diabetes increases with age. 7.6% of the study subjects were found to be diabetic and were unaware of their diabetic status. Physical inactivity and increasing waist circumference were found to be significantly associated with risk of diabetes. Diabetes risk was also significantly associated with positive family history. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Screening and early identification of high risk individuals would help in early diagnosis and treatment to prevent or to delay the onset of diabetes mellitus and its complications.</p> Komal Anand, Seema Jain, Harivansh Chopra, Arun Kumar, Ganesh Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2316 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Stress, Coping Strategies and Social Support as Predictors of Mental Health of Police Personnel of North India https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2266 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The profession of a police personnel is extremely stressful. Coping strategies and social support are known to be robust buffers of stress <strong>Objective</strong>: To study Stress, Coping Strategies and Social Support as Predictors of Mental Health of Police Personnel of Uttar Pradesh, North India. <strong>Method</strong>: This was a cross-sectional study comprising of 300 male police personnel. Assessment was done using Occupational Stress Questionnaire, Brief COPE Scale and Mental Health Inventory. Multiple Regression Analysis was used to analyze the data. <strong>Results</strong>: Ambiguity stress, the belonging and appraisal support are found to be the strongest predictor of mental health of constables. Stress in the area of organizational structure, the appraisal support and maladaptive coping strategies are essential predictors of mental health of inspectors. Beside this, social support, belonging support, appraisal support and active coping are significant predictor of mental health of Officers.</p> Shweta Singh, Bandna Gupta, Premchandra Mishra Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2266 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A perspective on Master of Public Health (MPH) Graduates in India: Current role and way head https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2292 <p>The public health sector of any country deals on the forefront and utilizes the multidisciplinary approach. In India the Masters of Public Health graduates are trained in unstandardized manner and lack a regulatory body. The gap created in serving the unserved can easily be fulfilled by utilization of this workforce in systematic manner, The emerging competition in the field, undervalued sector in terms of monitory benefits, poor demand and limited training institutions for MPH graduates along with the contribution of MPH during COVID 19 pandemic has been emphasized in the article. The perception of those working in the field has been highlighted with the way ahead of MPH program in India.</p> Latika Nath, Medha Mathur, Anahita Ali, Pradeep Aggarwal, Navgeet Mathur, Anjana Verma Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2292 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Omicron: The new variant of concern needs preparedness, not panic https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2300 <p>SARS-CoV-2 continues to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. On November 26, the World Health Organization (WHO) labeled the omicron type as a covid-19 variant of concern, prompting travel restrictions, a rush to accelerate booster immunization programmes, and new attempts to address vaccination disparities. According to the WHO, omicron is a "very high" concern throughout the world, and preliminary research indicates that it may be a more transmissible type, leading to infection surges (1,2). The Indian government keeps a close eye on the issue and gives appropriate guidelines as needed.</p> <p>Omicron threat will depend on its transmissibility, Virulence, and capacity to evade immunity in those previously vaccinated or infected. Even if the disease is milder, the rapid onslaught of the virus could overwhelm health care systems (doubling time of 2.5 days means 50X increase in 2 weeks) (3). We should ensure mitigation plans are in place to maintain essential health services and that necessary resources are in place to respond to potential surges.</p> Surekha Kishore, U Venkatesh Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2300 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and other Non-Communicable Diseases: Time for an Integrated Approach https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2230 <p>Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a broad term covering a spectrum of conditions ranging from hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is highly prevalent across all regions of the world with its global prevalence of 25.2%(95%CI:22.1-28.7). It is commonly referred as the ‘hepatic manifestation’ of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Moreover, it is strongly associated with the individual components as well as MetS as a whole. NAFLD has been independently associated with other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like chronic kidney disease (CKD), Polycystic ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Stroke and Cancers. This strong association of NCDs with NAFLD not only affects the prevalence but also the progression and management of the disease. Thus, this review aims at highlighting the association of NAFLD with other NCDs. A literature search was undertaken in the MEDLINE database using the necessary MeSH terms. The review concludes NAFLD is a systemic disease, not just confined to liver-specific morbidity and mortality, but also associated with numerous extra-hepatic manifestations, such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal diseases, and malignancy. With co-existence of NAFLD with various NCDs it is expected to become the most overwhelming liver disease in the world in coming years. Hence, to reduce medical and economic impact associated with these comorbidities, it is recommended that all countries should estimate and predict the burden on comorbidities associated with NAFLD and galvanize its health resources in providing integrated therapeutic approaches for management of NAFLD and related comorbidities at an early stage.</p> Aayushi Rastogi, Manya Prasad, Archana Ramalingam, Umesh Kapil Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2230 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Malaria in Jharkhand State https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2275 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The aim of India is to reach zero Malaria cases by 2027 and then wait for three years before WHO can grant Malaria-free status certification. It is already the beginning of 2022 and India is about to reach the halfway mark of the Malaria Elimination framework period of 2016 to 2027. <strong>Objectives</strong>: To see how far Jharkhand has reached about Malaria elimination targets. <strong>Methods</strong>: By reviewing documents published by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP). <strong>Results</strong>: The Latehar District of Jharkhand had a very high Annual Parasite Incidence (API) of 10.86 during 2018. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: If interventions like the treatment of positive patients and asymptomatic carriers occur, the API will be expected to decrease drastically.</p> Arvind Nath Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2275 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Inventory control: Its principles and application https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2264 <p>Availability of good quality stock, in right quantity, at right place and time and at right cost is the essence of inventory control, which in turn is mandatory for smooth functioning and service delivery of any health care facility. Various techniques are available for inventory control, based on cost, criticality and other factors for e.g., ABC analysis, VED analysis, ABC-VED matrix, FSN analysis, SDE analysis etc. Each technique has its own strength and weakness in its applicability. Economic considerations are also imperative for logistic management of any health facility, as any cost savings could be spent more gainfully in some other way and thus more lives could be saved, reduced morbidities and overall positive impact. Future healthcare managers will have to utilize scientific methods of inventory management and the role of an efficient hospital logistics system cannot be ignored anymore. Inventory control is an important component of hospital management. It provides significant improvement in patient care, customer relationships and optimal use of resources. The objective of this paper is to present an up-to-date review of inventory control and critically appraise its various techniques, various costs associated with it and methods of indenting stock. This review will benefit post-graduate students and public health workers in understanding the concepts and principle of inventory control and applying the same in their practice.</p> Ankita Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Rasania , Kabita Barua Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Journal of Community Health http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2264 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000