Tackling the silent epidemic of Type-I Diabetes Mellitus (Type-1 DM) through National Health Programmes- A narrative review of available evidence
Keywords:Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Epidemics, Hyperglycemia, National Health Programs
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune ?-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency, insulin resistance, or by a combination of both. Both the incidence and prevalence of diabetes T1DM is suspected to be high in India, but in the absence of nation-wide registry, the possibility of exact numbers is unsure. Till date, studies done among the population have seen prevalence more than the incidence of the disease, which has led to late screening and diagnosis of the disease within the community settings. India is already suffering from the burden of type 2 DM, in the process of screening those, patients with T1DM are somewhat getting ignored. Furthermore, cost associated with the treatment expenditure and social status of the people suffering from the disease too have a role to consider which has been totally side-lined in national programmes like National Program for Control of Diabetes, Cardiovascular disease, and Stroke (NPCDCS). There is also scarcity of data on the incidence of T1DM which could aid in formulating better policy avenues for the patients suffering from the disease. Reports on trends in T1DM are more commonly available from countries with better established public health surveillance systems and diabetes research infrastructure. From India, due to scarcity of data on T1DM, we had to rely on published literature of some major centers across the country. Results from the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) first phase, till July 2011 which included 5546 patients found T1DM among 63.9% cases and predominately among children; at registration 11.1% had already developed chronic complication of T1DM. As India is already suffering from the burden of type 2 DM, during current management and treatment, the problem lies at various levels which needs to be addressed. We propose a setting based, life course approach for T1DM where every age group will have access to the health care system either directly or indirectly from intra-natal life till elderly age group through health approach based on scientific methods delivered through health system. In this regard a central registry having enumeration and provisioning of mandatory Insulin to all through a national policy being implemented by NPCDCS is what policy makers must take up at urgent bases if we want to bend the curve of rising T1DM and prevalence of overall diabetes in India.
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