Association of Dietary and Physical Activity Patterns and Hypertension in Western Rajasthan, 2022
Keywords:Humans, Adult, Child, Preschool, Middle Aged, Vegetables, Prevalence, Odds Ratio, Coronary Artery Disease, Fruit, Case-Control Studies, Plant Oils, Sample Size, Body Mass Index, Noncommunicable Diseases, Hypertension, Life Style
Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) is a modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease and chronic renal failure. HTN affects about 1 billion people globally; by 2025, up to 1.58 billion adults worldwide are likely to suffer from complications of HTN. This study was done to know the diet and physical activity patterns and HTN among the population of three districts of Western Rajasthan.
Objectives: To study the dietary and physical activity patterns among the population of Western Rajasthan. and to compare key findings among three districts Pali, Jodhpur and Barmer so that lifestyle changes can be recommended.
Methods: A case-control study was done among attendees of NCD clinics of tertiary-level centers in Pali, Barmer and Jodhpur. Hospital Controls were matched to age (± 5 years) and gender Considering the prevalence of HTN to be 20%*, the proportion of exposure in the general population as 0.2, odds ratio to be 2.2, power =80%, alpha=5% sample size is estimated to be 102 cases & 102 controls (from each district).
Results: Overall being married (OR= 3.3), having diabetes Cardiac disease (OR= 2.6), excessive salt consumption (OR= 2.7), moderate physical exercise less than 30 minutes (OR=1.9), using oil other than vegetable oil(OR=1.8) , Age >?60 years (OR =1.4) were the key risk factors. It was found that high BMI (BMI>27), consumption of non-vegetable oils (12.7%) was highest in Jodhpur, lack of moderate exercise for at least 30 minutes (81%), lack of sports activity (92%) was highest in Pali, least number of days/week of fruits and vegetables consumption (~1.64 days) was seen in Barmer.
Conclusions: Change in quantity of salt consumption and incorporation of moderate physical exercise for >30 minutes was most followed in control of HTN among the attendees of NCD Clinics from the multiple advise given.
Gupta R. Trends in hypertension epidemiology in India. J Hum Hypertens. 2004 Feb;18(2):73–8.
Godara R, Mathews E, Mini GK, Thankappan KR. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among
adults aged 30 years and above in Barmer district, Rajasthan, India. Indian Heart J. 2021;73(2):236–8.
Meena S, Rathore M, Gupta A, Kumawat P, Singh A. Assessment of National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer,
Diabetes, CVD and Stroke (NPCDCS): An observational study in rural Jaipur, Rajasthan. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2022 Jul;11(7):3667–72.
Malhotra P, Kumari S, Kumar R, Jain S, Sharma BK. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in an un-industrialised rural population of North India. J Hum Hypertens. 1999 Jul;13(7):467–72.
Kumar K, Kothari RP, Kothari K, Garg S, Khandelwal MK, Gupta R. “Prevalence of hypertension in an urban and rural area of Jaipur District.” Int J Healthc Biomed Res. April2013;1(3):120–6.
Premkumar R, Pothen J, Rima J, Arole S. Prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension in a community-based primary health care program villages at central India. Indian Heart J. 2016;68(3):270–7.
Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Whelton PK, He J. Worldwide prevalence of hypertension: a systematic review. J Hypertens. 2004 Jan;22(1):11–9.
Mangal S, Baig VN, Gupta K, Mangal D, Panwar RB, Gupta R. e Health initiatives for screening and management of hypertension in Rural Rajasthan. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2021 Dec;10(12):4553–7.
Manapurath RM, Anto RM, Pathak B, Malhotra S, Khanna P, Goel S. Diet and lifestyle risk factors associated with young adult hypertensives in India - Analysis of National Family Health Survey IV. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2022
Antima Galav, Rekha Bhatanagar, Suresh Chandra Meghwal, Manish Jain. Prevalence of Hypertension among Rural and Urban Population in Southern Rajasthan. Natl J Community Med. 6(2):174–8.
Svetkey LP, Simons-Morton DG, Proschan MA, Sacks FM, Conlin PR, Harsha D, et al. Effect of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet and reduced sodium intake on blood pressure control. J Clin Hypertens Greenwich Conn. 2004 Jul;6(7):373–81.
Mathur D, Deora S, Kaushik A, Bhardwaj P, Singh K. Awareness, medication adherence, and diet pattern among hypertensive patients attending teaching institution in western Rajasthan, India. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2020 May;9(5):2342–9.
Devarajan S, Singh R, Chatterjee B, Zhang B, Ali A. A blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil lowers blood pressure and improves the lipid profile in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. J Clin Lipidol. 2016;10(2):339–49.
Blair SN, Goodyear NN, Gibbons LW, Cooper KH. Physical fitness and incidence of hypertension in healthy normotensive men and women. JAMA. 1984 Jul 27;252(4):487–90.
Sivanantham P, Sahoo J, Lakshminarayanan S, Bobby Z, Kar SS. Profile of risk factors for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in a highly urbanized district of India: Findings from Puducherry district-wide STEPS Survey, 2019-20. PloS One.
Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
(DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jan 4;344(1):3–10.
Ke C, Gupta R, Shah BR, Stukel TA, Xavier D, Jha P. Association of Hypertension and Diabetes with Ischemic
Heart Disease and Stroke Mortality in India: The Million Death Study. Glob Heart. 2021;16(1):69.
Angell SY, De Cock KM, Frieden TR. A public health approach to global management of hypertension. Lancet Lond Engl. 2015 Feb 28;385(9970):825–7.
Gupta R, Gupta VP, Prakash H, Agrawal A, Sharma KK, Deedwania PC. 25-Year trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in an Indian urban population: Jaipur Heart Watch. Indian Heart J. 2018;70(6):802–7.
https://eatrightindia.gov.in.Swasth Bharat Yatra - Eat Right India.pdf (accessed on 14th november 2022)
https://fitindia.gov.in/fitnessprotocols.pdf (accessed on 14th november 2022)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Latika Nath Sinha, Deepak Tanwar , Hazari Mal Choudhary, Sanjay Choudhary , Nikhil Mathur , Rashmi Rathore , Rajendra Saran, Amandeep Semwal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.