Out-Of-Pocket Expenditure on Institutional Delivery in Rural Lucknow


  • Mukesh Shukla
  • Anil Kumar
  • Monica Agarwal
  • Jai Vir Singh
  • Abhishek Gupta



Introduction: Promotion of reproductive health through institutional delivery has been adopted by government as a strategy for reducing maternal mortality rate but still about half of the deliveries have been conducted at home. Cost barrier is one of the major cause for preferring home delivery instead of institutional delivery. Not only the direct costs responsible for low institutional delivery but also indirect costs too accountable for less number of institutional births in the country. Aims & Objectives: To estimate the out of pocket expenditure incurred by households during delivery and its determinants. Materials and methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted during which a total 272 households having women who had recently delivered in government institutions were interviewed. Result: The mean out of pocket expenditure was found to be Rs. 1406.04 ± 103.27 including spending’s on drugs, travel, pathological tests and unofficial payments. Low socioeconomic class, residence outside the catchment area of delivery point, tertiary and secondary health care facilities as place of delivery and low literacy status of head of the family below high school  were found to be significantly associated with out of pocket expenditure bivariate analysis (p<0.05). On multivariate analysis low socioeconomic (OR 22.40; 95% CI 9.44-53.15; p = 0.01)   and residence (OR 13.07; 95% CI (1.58-116.55); p = 0.03)  outside the catchment area of delivery point were found to be independent predictors of catastrophic out of pocket expenditure during delivery. Conclusions: Although government has been running lot of schemes for availing free of cost health services but still one has to pay from their pocket as medical expenses. In order to bear these expenses, they have to borrow money, sell their assets and securities due to which households suffer a lot. In the present study, unofficial payment was found prevalent in public institutions and these informal payments make the health service unaffordable for households.


Download data is not yet available.




How to Cite

Shukla M, Kumar A, Agarwal M, Singh JV, Gupta A. Out-Of-Pocket Expenditure on Institutional Delivery in Rural Lucknow. Indian J Community Health [Internet]. 2015 Jun. 30 [cited 2024 Apr. 18];27(2):241-6. Available from: https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/564



Original Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)