Coronavirus: A threat to Global Public Health

Published

2020-03-31

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47203/IJCH.2020.v32i01.006

Keywords:

COVID-19, Coronavirus, nCoV-2019, SARS, MERS

Dimensions Badge

Issue

Section

Review Article

Authors

Abstract

Previously considered of meagre significance to the human race, coronaviruses have effectively evolved to jump the species barrier and cause widespread contagion in mankind. The SARS pandemic, the MERS situation in the middle-east and the ongoing COVID 2019 epidemic are all attributed to this evolving virus. COVID 2019 is the seventh coronavirus isolated successfully and the third beta-coronavirus that causes a fatal illness in humans; the other two beta-coronaviruses being severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV. Having a natural reservoir in bats these viruses infect humans through an intermediate host and then rapidly adapt and mutate for human to human transmissions. Four other known alpha coronaviruses cause only common cold in humans. Although mortality rate of COVID 2019 epidemic is lower at 2.5% than the previous two CoV outbreaks, that is, 9.6% in SARS and 34.4% in MERS, but rapid transmissibility points towards a sustained epidemic of epic proportions. In the absence of any specific treatment protocols and experimental vaccines still under research, management largely depends upon symptomatic therapy, strict infection control and quarantine measures. Restriction of human interactions with known animal sources of the virus as a measure of prevention is essentially required. Owing to huge genetic diversity and frequent genomic recombination, novel coronaviruses might emerge periodically, warranting the need for extensive research and development of effective treatments and vaccines.

How to Cite

1.
Singh S, Singh AK, Jain PK, Singh NP, Kumar Bajpai P, Kharya P. Coronavirus: A threat to Global Public Health. Indian J Community Health [Internet]. 2020 Mar. 31 [cited 2022 Dec. 3];32(1):19-24. Available from: https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/1356

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Gao GF. From “A” IV to “Z” IKV: attacks from emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Cell. 2018 Mar 8;172(6):1157-9.

World Health Organization.Situation Report.[Internet]. Who.int. 2020 [cited 20 February 2020]. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200219-sitrep-30-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=6e50645_6

Richman DD, Whitley RJ, Hayden FG, editors. Clinical virology. John Wiley & Sons; 2016 Dec 1.

Masters PS, Perlman S. Coronaviridae. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields virology. 6th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013: 825-58.

de Wit E, van Doremalen N, Falzarano D, Munster VJ. SARS and MERS: recent insights into emerging coronaviruses. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2016 Aug;14(8):523.

2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Update: Uncoating the Virus | ASM.org [Internet]. ASM.org. 2020 [cited 20 February 2020]. Available from: https://asm.org/Articles/2020/January/2019-Novel-Coronavirus-2019-nCoV-Update-Uncoating

Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. In Coronaviruses 2015 (pp. 1-23). Humana Press, New York, NY

Su S, Wong G, Shi W. Epidemiology, genetic recombination, and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. Trends Microbiol2016; 24: 490–502.

Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, Wang W, Song H, Huang B, Zhu N, Bi Y. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet. 2020 Jan 30.395(10224), 565–74.

Zhao Z, Zhang F, Xu M, Huang K, Zhong W, Cai W, Yin Z, Huang S, Deng Z, Wei M, Xiong J. Description and clinical treatment of an early outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangzhou, PR China. Journal of medical microbiology. 2003 Aug 1;52(8):715-20.

Lee N, Hui D, Wu A, Chan P, Cameron P, Joynt GM, Ahuja A, Yung MY, Leung CB, To KF, Lui SF. A major outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003 May 15;348(20):1986-94.

Global surveillance for severe acute respiratory syndrome. WklyEpidemiological Rec 2003;78:100-9.

Global surveillance for severe acute respiratory syndrome. WklyEpidemiological Rec 2003;78:100-9.

Booth C. Clinical Features and Short-term Outcomes of 144 Patients With SARS in the Greater Toronto Area. JAMA. 2003;289(21):2801.

Rainer T. Evaluation of WHO criteria for identifying patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome out of hospital: prospective observational study. BMJ. 2003;326(7403):1354-1358.

Hsu L, Lee C, Green J, Ang B, Paton N, Lee L et al. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Singapore: Clinical Features of Index Patient and Initial Contacts. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(6):713-717.

Tsui P, Kwok M, Yuen H, Lai S. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Clinical Outcome and Prognostic Correlates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(9):1064-1069.

Chan J. Short term outcome and risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes in adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Thorax. 2003;58(8):686-689.

Hon K, Leung C, Cheng W, Chan P, Chu W, Kwan Y et al. Clinical presentations and outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome in children. The Lancet. 2003;361(9370):1701-1703.

Ho A, Sung J, Chan-Yeung M. An Outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome among Hospital Workers in a Community Hospital in Hong Kong. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003;139(7):564.

Riley S, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Abu-Raddad LJ, Hedley AJ, Leung GM, Ho LM, Lam TH, Thach TQ, Chau P. Transmission dynamics of the etiological agent of SARS in Hong Kong: impact of public health interventions. Science. 2003 Jun 20;300(5627):1961-6.

Government of Republic of China.Outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) at Amoy Gardens, Kowloon Bay, Hong Kong, main findings of the investigations.Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: Department of Health, April2003.http://www.info.gov.hk/info/ap/pdf/amoy_e.pdf.)

Johnson DL, Mead KR, Lynch RA, Hirst DV. Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: a literature review with suggestions for future research. American journal of infection control. 2013 Mar 1;41(3):254-8.

Government of Republic of China. [Internet].Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: Department of Health. Info.gov.hk. 2020 [cited 18 February 2020]. Available from: https://www.info.gov.hk/info/sars/pdf/amoy_e.pdf

Guan, Y. (2003). Isolation and Characterization of Viruses Related to the SARS Coronavirus from Animals in Southern China. Science, 302(5643), 276–278. doi: 10.1126/science.1087139

Joseph S.M. Peiris, M.D., D.Phil. et al The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, N Engl J Med 2003;349:2431-41.

So LK, Lau AC, Yam LY, Cheung TM, Poon E, Yung RW, Yuen KY. Development of a standard treatment protocol for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The Lancet. 2003 May 10;361(9369):1615-7.

Zaki AM, Van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012 Nov 8;367(19):1814-20.

World Health Organization.Factsheet.World Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[Internet]. Who.int. 2020 [cited 17 February 2020].Available from https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-(mers-cov)

Memish ZA, Zumla AI, Al-Hakeem RF, Al-Rabeeah AA, Stephens GM. Family cluster of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections. New England Journal of Medicine. 2013 Jun 27;368(26):2487-94.

Ki M. 2015 MERS outbreak in Korea: hospital-to-hospital transmission. Epidemiology and health. 2015;37.

American society of microbiology. Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19).[Internet]. Resources. [cited 20 February]. Available from https://www.asm.org/Press-Releases/2020/nCoV2019-Resources

Paules, C. I., Marston, H. D., &Fauci, A. S. (2020). Coronavirus Infections—More Than Just the Common Cold. Jama. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.0757

Azhar, E. I., El-Kafrawy, S. A., Farraj, S. A., Hassan, A. M., Al-Saeed, M. S., Hashem, A. M., &Madani, T. A. (2014). Evidence for Camel-to-Human Transmission of MERS Coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(26), 2499–2505.

Hui, D. S., Azhar, E. I., Madani, T. A., Ntoumi, F., Kock, R., Dar, O., … Petersen, E. (2020). The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health — The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 91, 264–266.

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, Zhao X, Huang B, Shi W, Lu R, Niu P. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020 Jan 24.

Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. The Lancet, 395(10223), 470–473. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30185-9

World Health Organization.Situation Report.[Internet]. Who.int. 2020 [cited 17 February 2020]. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200211-sitrep-22-ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=fb6d49b1_2

Chinese centre for disease control and prevention. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19)- China, 2020. CCDC Weekly/ vol.2/ No.x

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, Qiu Y, Wang J, Liu Y, Wei Y, Yu T. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet. 2020 Jan 30.395(10223), 507–513.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Zhang L, Fan G, Xu J, Gu X, Cheng Z. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet. 2020 Jan 24.395(10223), 497–506.

Guan Y, Zheng BJ, He YQ, Liu XL, Zhuang ZX, Cheung CL, Luo SW, Li PH, Zhang LJ, Guan YJ, Butt KM. Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China. Science. 2003 Oct 10;302(5643):276-8.

Alagaili AN, Briese T, Mishra N, Kapoor V, Sameroff SC, de Wit E, Munster VJ, Hensley LE, Zalmout IS, Kapoor A, Epstein JH. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. MBio. 2014 May 1;5(2):e00884-14.

The Lancet. Journal. ScienceDirect.com [Internet]. Sciencedirect.com. 2020 [cited 22 February 2020]. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-lancet

Leung C. Estimating the distribution of the incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection between travelers to Hubei, China and non-travelers. medRxiv. 2020 Jan 1.doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.13.20022822

Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, Xing F, Liu J, Yip CC, Poon RW, Tsoi HW. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet. 2020 Jan 24.395(10223), 514–23.

Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Leist SR, et al. Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV. Nat Commun. 2020;11(1):222.

Graham BS, Mascola JR, Fauci AS. Novel vaccine technologies: essential components of an adequate response to emerging viral diseases. JAMA. 2018; 319(14):1431-1432.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>