Practice of menstrual hygiene among school going adolescent girls in the rural areas of district Muzaffarnagar





Adolescence, Menstrual Hygiene

Dimensions Badge



Original Article



Background: Every year, May 28 is considered as the Global Menstrual Hygiene Day. Many studies have revealed that most of the adolescent girls had incomplete and inaccurate information about the menstrual physiology and hygiene. Hygiene related practices during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it has a health impact in terms of increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections (RTI) and other health problems. Aim & Objectives: To find out the menstrual hygiene practices and their association with socio-demographic characteristics of study participants. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 286 school going adolescents girls in the age group of 11-19 years in 5 schools (three government and two private) in the rural area of district Muzaffarnagar.  Study was conducted in December, 2021 using a pre- designed, pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analysed statistically and chi square test was applied. Results: Most of the girls achieved menarche at the age of 10-13 years (79.7%). Mothers of around 83.5% girls were illiterate and these girls were less aware about menstrual hygiene practices. Only 63% girls knew about menstruation before menarche. According to 75.5% girls, source of menstrual bleeding was vagina and only 65.7% girls knew about the physiology of menstruation. Conclusion: The study shows that there is significant lack of knowledge among girls regarding menstruation. Only 62% girls use sanitary pads as absorbent material due to various reasons like shyness, high cost, etc. Majority of girls had restrictions of not touching kitchen items and not to take bath during menses. There is a need to make the girls aware regarding menstrual hygiene by various health awareness programs in schools and the community.

How to Cite

Nain N, Singh N, Zarin L. Practice of menstrual hygiene among school going adolescent girls in the rural areas of district Muzaffarnagar: Indian J Community Health [Internet]. 2022 Sep. 30 [cited 2022 Sep. 30];34(3):362-6. Available from:


Download data is not yet available.


World Health Organization. Programming for adolescent health and development. WHO Technical Report Series No.886, 1996:2.

Dutta DC. Textbook of Gynaecology. 5th ed. New central book agency (P) Ltd; 2008. Menstrual cycle; p.93.

P. Poirier, “UNICEF- guidance- menstrual- health- hygiene- 2019,” 2019.

R. N. Sinha and B. Paul, “Menstrual hygiene management in India: the concerns,” Indian Journal of Public Health, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 71-74, 2018.

Dasgupta A, Sarkar M. Menstrual Hygiene: How Hygienic is the Adolescent Girl? Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2008; 33(2): 77-80.

S. Kumari, “Social, cultural and religious practices during menstruation,” Jharkhand Journal of Development and Management Studies Xiss, Ranchi, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 7451-7459, 2017.

Mudey AB, Kesharwani N, Mudey GA, Goyal RC. A cross- sectional study on the awareness regarding safe and hygienic practices amongst school going adolescent girls in the rural areas of Wardha district. Canadian Center of Science and Education. 2010;2(2):225-31.

Kamath R, Ghosh D, Lena A, Chandrasekaran V. A study on knowledge and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among rural and urban adolescent girls in Udupi taluk, Manipal, India. Glob J Med Public Health. 2013;2:1-9.

Belayneh Z, Mekuriaw B. Knowledge and menstrual hygiene practice among adolescent school girls in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1595. Published 2019 Nov 29. doi:10.1186/s12889-019-7973-9.

Alam, Mahbub-Ul et al. “Menstrual hygiene management among Bangladeshi adolescent schoolgirls and risk factors affecting school absence: results from a cross-sectional survey.” BMJ open vol. 7,7 e015508. 9 Jul. 2017, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015508.

Nabwera HM, Shah V, Neville R, et al. Menstrual hygiene management practices and associated health outcomes among school-going adolescents in rural Gambia. PLoS One. 2021;16(2):e0247554. Published 2021 Feb 25. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247554.

Yasmin S, Manna N, Mallik S. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent school students: An in-depth cross- sectional study in an urban community of West Bengal, India. IOSR J Dental and Medical Sciences. 2013:5:22-6.

Patavegar BN, Kapilashrami MC, Rasheed N, Pathak R. Menstrual Hygiene among Adolescent School Girls: An In-Depth Cross- Sectional Study in an Urban Community. Int J Health Sci Res. 2014;4(11):15-21.

Yaliwal, Rajasri G et al. “Menstrual Morbidities, Menstrual Hygiene, Cultural Practices during Menstruation, and WASH Practices at Schools in Adolescent Girls of North Karnataka, India: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Study.” Obstetrics and gynecology

Thakre SB, Thakre SS, Reddy M. Menstrual hygiene: knowledge and practice among adolescent girls of Saoner, Nagpur district. J Clini Dia Res. 2011;5(5):1027-33.

Rana B, Prajapati A, Sonaliya KN, Shah V, Patel M, Solanki A. An assessment of menstrual hygiene practices amongst adolescent females at Kheda district of Gujarat state, India. Healthline J. 2015;6(1):23–29.

Adrija Datta, Nirmalya Manna, Mousumi Datta, Jhuma Sarkar, Baijayanti Baur, Saraswati Datta. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study. Hawra : Global Journal of Medicine, 2012, Vol. 1,Issue 5. p. 52.

Yaliwal, R. G., Biradar, A. M., Kori, S. S., Mudanur, S. R., Pujeri, S. U., & Shannawaz, M. (2020). Menstrual Morbidities, Menstrual Hygiene, Cultural Practices during Menstruation, and WASH Practices at Schools in Adolescent Girls of North Karnataka, India: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Study. Obstetrics and gynecology international, 2020, 6238193.

Most read articles by the same author(s)