Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Global Imperative for Health





Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, Health, Infectious Diseases


Clean water, proper sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) can have a significant impact on human health. Lack of financial resources prevent developing nations from making investments in WASH infrastructure, such as water treatment plants and sanitation facilities. Achieving universal access to clean water and sanitation is hampered by poor governance and insufficient policy frameworks. Governments, civil society organizations, and the private sector need to collaborate to invest in infrastructure and technology, promote good hygiene practices, and undertake education and awareness-raising programmes in order to ensure that everyone has access to clean water and sanitation.


Download data is not yet available.


Martin. Water and Sanitation [Internet]. United Nations Sustainable Development. [cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/water-and-sanitation/

Water supply, sanitation and hygiene monitoring [Internet]. [cited cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: https://www.who.int/teams/environment-climate-change-and-health/water-sanitation-and-health/monitoring-and-evidence/wash-monitoring

Moe C, Rheingans R. Global Challenges in Water, Sanitation and Health. J Water Health. 2006;4(Suppl 1):41–57.

Core questions | JMP [Internet]. [cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: https://washdata.org/monitoring/methods/core-questions

Hutton G, Chase C. Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene. In: Mock CN, Nugent R, Kobusingye O, Smith KR, editors. Injury Prevention and Environmental Health [Internet]. 3rd ed. Washington (DC): The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank; 2017 [cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK525207/

Briscoe J. The challenge of providing water in developing countries [Internet]. [cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: https://web.worldbank.org/archive/website00528/WEB/PDF/THECHALL.PDF .

Institute of Medicine (US) Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences R. Achieving Water and Sanitation Services for Health in Developing Countries [Internet]. Global Environmental Health: Research Gaps and Barriers for Providing Sustainable Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services: Workshop Summary. National Academies Press (US); 2009 [cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50770/

CDC. Water, Sanitation, and Environmentally Related Hygiene [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2022 [cited cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/hygiene/index .html

Veerapu N, Subramaniyan P, Praveenkumar BA, Arun G. Promotion of sanitation and hygiene in a rural area of South India: A community-based study. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2016;5(3):587–92.

Raising Even More Clean Hands – WASH in Schools [Internet]. [cited cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: https://www.washinschoolsindex.com/document/34

Water, sanitation and hygiene standards for schools in low-cost settings / edited by John Adams ... [?et al]? [Internet]. [cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44159

Tsekleves E, Fonseca Braga M, Abonge C, Santana M, Pickup R, Yongabi Anchang K, et al. Community engagement in water, sanitation and hygiene in sub-Saharan Africa: does it WASH? J Water Sanit Hyg Dev. 2022;12(2):143–56.

Esrey SA, Potash JB, Roberts L, Shiff C. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Bull World Health Organ. 1991;69(5):609–21.

Günther I, Fink G. Water and sanitation to reduce child mortality: The impact and cost of water and sanitation infrastructure. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. 2011;1(5618).

Pickering AJ, Davis J. Freshwater availability and water fetching distance affect child health in sub-Saharan Africa. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46(4):2391–7.

Hutton G, Rodriguez UP, Winara A, Anh NV, Phyrum K, Chuan L, Blackett I, Weitz A. Economic efficiency of sanitation interventions in Southeast Asia. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 2014;4(1):23-36.

Koolwal G, Van de Walle D. Access to water, women’s work, and child outcomes. Economic Development and Cultural Change. 2013;61(2):369-405.

Tseole NP, Mindu T, Kalinda C, Chimbari MJ. Barriers and facilitators to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practices in Southern Africa: A scoping review. PLoS ONE. 2022;17(8):e0271726.

Howard G, Calow R, Macdonald A, Bartram J. Climate Change and Water and Sanitation: Likely Impacts and Emerging Trends for Action. Annu Rev Environ Resour. 2016;41(1):253–76.

Mlenga DH. Towards community resilience, focus on a rural water supply, sanitation and hygiene project in Swaziland. American Journal of Rural Development. 2016;4(4):85-92.

Technology | WASH Matters [Internet]. [cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: https://washmatters.wateraid.org/technology .

WHO WASH strategy 2018-2025 [Internet]. [cited 2023 Sep 25]. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/WHO-CED-PHE-WSH-18.03 .




How to Cite

Kishore S, U V, Verma SK, Verma SK, Walia P. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Global Imperative for Health. Indian J Community Health [Internet]. 2023 Sep. 30 [cited 2024 Jun. 19];35(3):367-71. Available from: https://iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2703




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>